Everything about spine surgery
In many cases, the patient can recover with non-surgical treatments such as physiotherapy, home exercises or spinal injections. If the body does not respond positively to these treatments, spine surgery is suggested.
Problems in the arms and legs that have a nervous origin
People with scoliosis (abnormal curvature of the spine)
People who suffer from back and neck pain caused by spine problems
Doctor specializing in spine surgery
Orthopedic and neurosurgeons can both treat spine problems. There used to be a belief that if a patient has significant problems in his nervous system, it is better to use a spine and neurosurgeon for his treatment such as closed spine surgery, but this notion is no longer true. Today, it is said that when faced with these problems, it is necessary to use the services of a person or a specialist who has sufficient expertise in spine problems, in other words, a back and spine specialist and has expertise in its surgery.
When deciding on surgery, the role of the spine surgeon is to educate you and help you in the decision-making process, and they will provide you with information about a wide range of options and what is technically possible, the difficulty and risk of the procedure and It describes its potential benefits. Therefore, it is important to choose a spine surgeon who provides you with correct information.
People who have unexplained back pain, spine surgery is not recommended and conservative treatment should be recommended. The following diagnostic tests can be mentioned:
Spinal surgery procedures
Discectomy or microdiscectomy
In this surgery, the intervertebral disc herniation is removed to remove the pressure on the compressed nerve. Microdiscectomy surgery is one of the minimally invasive spine surgeries.
In this surgery, the thin bony plate behind the spine or lamina is removed. This work increases the space between the spinal canal and reduces the pressure.
In this surgery, a part of the lamina vertebral arch that covers the spinal cord is removed by the surgeon. In this surgery, a smaller amount of bone will be removed than in lainectomy surgery. Laminectomy and laminotomy methods are decompression surgery methods. In these surgical methods, the compression of the spinal nerves is resolved by the tissue.
In this surgical method, the tissue or bone that forms the passage where the nerve roots branch off from the spinal cord and exit the spine will be removed.
Artificial disc replacement is shown to be very effective for severe degenerative disc patients. Degenerative disc disease is a disease that can cause significant pain in the back and neck. In this surgery, an artificial disc will replace the damaged disc. This method will be used as an alternative method for welding beads.
Welding the beads
In this surgical method, two vertebrae are welded together. In this surgical method, special bone grafting tools such as rods, screws, etc. are used. There are different methods of bone grafting. Methods such as the individual’s own bone graft and another individual’s bone graft. Bead welding is done with different approaches.
ALIF, PLIF, TLIF, LIF surgeries
This surgery is related to the fusion of the lumbar vertebrae, which will be used to stabilize the vertebrae of the spine and eliminate movement between the bones.
Fusion of the front lumbar vertebrae
Fusion of the posterior lumbar vertebrae
Lumbar intervertebral fusion that is created in the process of this surgical procedure.
Lateral intervertebral fusion, which is surgically performed using a minimally invasive approach on the lateral part of the body
Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery (MIS)
Minimally invasive spine surgery (MIS) was first performed in the 1980s, but there have been rapid advances recently. Advances in technology enable spine surgeons to patient-select and treat an evolving array of spine disorders, such as degenerative disc disease, disc herniation, fractures, tumors, infections, instability, and deformity.
MIS was developed to treat spinal disorders with less muscle involvement. This can lead to faster recovery, less blood loss during surgery, and a faster return to normal function. In some MIS procedures, also known as “keyhole surgery,” the surgeon uses a small endoscope with a camera attached to the end. This endoscope is inserted into the skin through a small incision. The camera provides surgeons with a view of the inside of the body and allows access to the damaged area of the spine.
Care after spine surgery
After spine surgery, the physiotherapist recommends exercises and movements to the patient.
It is possible that the person needs to stay in the hospital for 3 to 4 days. You must rest after spine surgery.
Physiotherapy exercises should start the day after the operation. Doing exercises can strengthen a person’s range of motion and muscles.
A person can use cane and walker to walk.
Walking can help the healing process.
You should sit so that your spine is completely straight.
When sleeping, it is better to lie on your back and place a pillow under your head and knees. It is better to sleep on a mattress that is not too soft. The sleeping position is very important and the patient should be careful not to twist or bend too much (fetal position) and sleep on the back.
You should take your medications according to your doctor’s instructions.
The use of some drugs such as aspirin, gelophene, anti-inflammatory and non-steroid drugs is prohibited for 3 to 6 months after spine surgery.
After the surgery, you can take a shower in coordination with the doctor. You can sit on a chair in the bathroom. You can go to the bathroom two days after the surgery. In these cases, use a waterproof dressing in the surgical area. In other cases, keep the dressing dry.
Avoid vigorous physical activities such as lifting heavy objects or even sudden turns of the back for at least 6 weeks.
Cover the wound with a bandage for the first five days, and then keep the wound dry and clean.
Avoid stress and pressure on the spine.
You can drive for a few weeks after surgery.
Consult your doctor before returning to work.
Remove the non-absorbable sutures 10 to 12 days after the operation.
Absorbent sutures that do not need to be pulled, only the ends and beginnings of the sutures should be kept clean.
The use of a belt or brace depends on the doctor and the type of surgery. In surgeries where the type of fixation is done, it is usually recommended to use a waist belt for one to two months, but in light surgeries, it is recommended only for the first few days to reduce pain.
When should you see a doctor?
Redness, severe swelling and discharge at the operation site
Impact on the operation area or fall from a height
What tips should be taken to control the pain?
In addition to taking the medicines prescribed by your doctor. Using ice in the first 48 hours after surgery can be useful.
Is scar tissue normal after surgery?
The formation of scar tissue can affect the healing process, and scar tissue is common after surgery. Scar tissue does not have any nerve endings, so it is not painful. The main cause of pain is fibrous adhesion to the nerve root. If you have scar tissue after surgery, this is completely normal. But if the pain continues after the operation and to find the cause of the pain, a full medical examination should be done.
What are the rehabilitation programs?
Appropriate physical therapy, stretching exercises, and lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking can speed up your recovery and reduce the likelihood of pain.