Chin prosthesis

Chin prosthesis

Chin prosthesis

Chin prosthesis

All about chin prosthesis surgery

Who is the best Chin prosthesis surgeon in Iran?
Since the chin plays a very important role in the beauty and symmetry between the facial parts, chin prosthesis surgery is also a suitable option for people who feel that their chin does not fit with other parts of the face. Therefore, this surgery has a special place among men and especially women today. This surgery can include chin enlargement from the method of placing facial implants or chin reduction surgery for people who do not like their jaw to be prominent in their profile.

Here, we are trying to familiarize you with the nature of this surgery as well as the recovery period after it, so that you can make the best decision with full knowledge.

Chin prosthesis

What is chin prosthesis surgery?

As mentioned, chin prosthesis improves the fit of the face by changing the dimensions of the chin, which includes surgery to shrink the chin and enlarge it. In this surgery, the doctor enlarges the small chin by increasing its dimensions or protrusion to improve facial coordination. Although chin surgery is a minor surgical procedure, it has a significant impact on a person’s appearance.


How to perform chin prosthesis surgery


Since we are going to examine all aspects of this surgery, it is better to learn more about how to perform this surgery:


What happens during chin prosthesis surgery?


First, before the surgery, the face and chin are photographed and X-rays are taken. By performing this test, the doctor can determine the areas that need surgery. Sometimes, only a small change and a small volume increase in the chin area is needed. In these cases, the doctor can increase the volume of the chin by using silicone prostheses or bone grafting in this area. The type of prosthesis used and the brand used are selected according to various factors.

During surgery, an incision is made inside the mouth or outside the face and under the chin. A hole is created in the front of the chin bone and under the muscles of this area and the prosthesis is placed. The incision is closed with appropriate stitches and a bandage is used to protect the area. The scar caused by this surgery is hardly visible.

Surgery to fix chewing problems can be done at the same time as this surgery.


This surgery will cause the following:


Increasing chin protrusion

Increasing the width of the chin

Hiding in secret

Increasing vertical chin elevation

Reducing or eliminating the depression of the muscle in the chin

Matching and harmony in the whole face




Chin prosthesis
Who is chin prosthesis surgery suitable for?


The question that may have occupied many people’s minds in this matter is who really needs this type of surgery and is suitable for it. In the following, we have named some people who are candidates for this surgery.


People who have receded chin.

People with a sharp or square chin

People who have a prominent nose.

Those who have a fleshy neck.

People who have perfect physical health do not have a medical history of certain diseases.

People who use tobacco and alcohol are not suitable for this surgery.


Those who do not have any of the mentioned problems should consult a medical expert in this field for advice before making their decision.

Advantages of chin prosthesis surgery


Below we have introduced some of the advantages of this facial surgery:


Corrects defects in the face better and more precisely.

Technically, it is easier than other similar methods.

It is more economical.

It has a shorter recovery period.

Its side effects are extremely less.


Complications of chin prosthesis surgery


Complications of this surgery are very rare, but like any other surgery, it can have risks. During the consultation, the doctor discusses all these side effects with the patient. The most common side effects of this surgery include the following:

– bruises

– Moving the prosthesis

– swelling


Necessary measures after chin prosthesis surgery


In this section, we have reviewed some of the necessary and needed measures for the patient after surgery, which will speed up the recovery process:


It is better to apply a cold compress to the affected area regularly for three days after the surgery.

Rest and avoid any physical activity for a few days.

One day after the surgery, you can easily shower and wash your face.

If there is pain, you can use acetaminophen.

If you use any other medicine, consult your doctor first.

Take the medicines prescribed by the doctor on time and at the time mentioned.

It is better to observe food intake for the first 24 hours and only use watery foods such as soup, soup, etc. Also, try to avoid opening and closing your mouth in the early days.

Sleep with your face up for two weeks after surgery. This procedure helps to heal swellings and surgical scars.

Don’t worry if your face becomes swollen because it will go away in a short time.


Chin prosthesis


last word


This type of surgery can be a suitable choice for those who care about their beauty in addition to their health, considering the advantages it provides to patients as well as the cost-effectiveness it has for them.

For this reason, chin prosthesis surgery can be an easy solution to return the beauty of your face shape. So, if you are very interested in making your face more beautiful and aligning your facial parts with each other, this surgery is the best option for you

Chin prosthesis
Chin prosthesis




Everything about blepharoplasty (eyelid drooping surgery)

Who is the best Blepharoplasty surgeon in Iran?
Blepharoplasty or drooping eyelid surgery is a surgery to improve appearance and beauty and solve problems caused by drooping eyelids. Eyelid blepharoplasty surgery can be performed on the upper and lower eyelids and is performed to solve problems such as drooping eyelids, sebaceous glands, and muscle and muscle appendages.


The purpose of performing blepharoplasty can be different because some people do it just to improve their appearance, but others lose their vision due to excessive drooping of the eyelid or swelling due to fat deposits and muscles inside the eyelid tissue. They will suffer from disorders, in such cases, blepharoplasty will have a therapeutic aspect in addition to beauty.



The effect of blepharoplasty on people’s beauty

Blepharoplasty can be used for different cases and as mentioned, it will have different aspects, as a result of blepharoplasty surgery, it can be used for cases such as tightening or loss of elasticity of the skin, which will cause many wrinkles. .


In some cases, in the lower eyelids, the presence of extra muscles and muscles in the tissue will cause the eyelids to relax and can lead to the formation of eye bags under the eyelids, which will have an unpleasant appearance. Blepharoplasty surgery can also be used to improve problems in cases such as reducing the angle of vision and excessive drooping of the eyelid.


In some cases, eyelid surgery or blepharoplasty is also known as eye and eyelid lift, because in this method, the excess edges of the eyelid will be removed and the excess skin will be removed, and again we will see stitches in the eyelid and eye line to heal the wounds. As it was said, according to the therapeutic uses of blepharoplasty, the main reason for people’s desire for this surgery is the results to improve their appearance and beauty.


Of course, blepharoplasty will not eliminate all wrinkles and crow’s feet lines under the eyes, but it can be used as a supplement along with beauty procedures such as fat and gel injections to get more desirable results.


Benefits of eyelid blepharoplasty surgery


As we age, we see that the skin of the body loses its softness and elasticity. As a result, we will see that the skin of the body loosens a little and will cause wrinkles and an unpleasant appearance. The loss of skin softness causes changes in one of the most complex tissues of the body, the eyelids, which are made entirely of skin.


These changes can be accompanied by wrinkles and loosening of the skin of the eyelids, which will lead to problems such as drooping of the eyelids that will occur in the upper or lower eyelids, and one of the best and most basic solutions for this issue is blepharoplasty.


Therefore, according to the mentioned cases, it can be concluded that the blepharoplasty cosmetic operation will be used to lift the eyelid and remove drooping, remove excess fat from the eyelid tissue or muscles and tissues, eye bags under the lower eyelid, etc.


Suitable candidate for blepharoplasty


Usually, any person after reaching the legal age can perform blepharoplasty, but always in such circumstances, from the point of view of medical and beauty experts, only some people have the best conditions to perform blepharoplasty.


In most cases, cosmetic doctors are of the opinion that people with normal physical conditions who do not have any specific diseases can be one of the best candidates for blepharoplasty if they have a proper and realistic vision of the results.


Most of the people who perform blepharoplasty are usually over 35 years old, but if the issue of bags under the eyes that contain fat glands and extra tissues is a hereditary issue in your family, this operation can be performed at a younger age and in addition to the beauty of the aspects It will also have a cure. Blepharoplasty cosmetic surgery can change your appearance in an incredible way and increase your beauty and self-confidence.


But if you think that you have doubts about the results of blepharoplasty and you will check the results very strictly, it is better to consult with your cosmetologist before performing the blepharoplasty procedure so that the goals after the operation are well defined and all The desired points will be provided to you, as a result, your decision or perspective on blepharoplasty may change a little.




The duration of the results of blepharoplasty


Regarding the results of blepharoplasty and their durability, it should be mentioned that it is also possible to perform blepharoplasty without surgery and similar results can be obtained using methods such as blepharoplasty with plasma jet or eye lift, but because blepharoplasty in The principle is a surgical procedure, the results of which will last for at least 7 to 10 years and rarely need to be repeated.


In blepharoplasty, waste material will be completely removed by making incisions and excess skin will be removed, and then stitches will be applied again to close the wound, which will increase the durability of eyelid cosmetic surgery because there is no temporary solution in this direction. Not used.


Preparations before eyelid cosmetic surgery


Blepharoplasty cosmetic surgery, like any other operation, requires preparation, so keep in mind that in order to be fully prepared before eyelid surgery, it is better to remember some points carefully because it can affect your treatment and recovery process. be Considering that blepharoplasty surgery is performed in the area of eyelids and eyes, it is better to have someone present as your companion during the operation to accompany you home after discharge, try to rest at home for the duration of your stay. Be prepared to pay in advance. For example, prepare and mark your resting place well and store the food that will be prepared in a shorter time in your refrigerator so that you can use it when necessary.


Try to always have a cold compress, sterile gases and eye drops next to your resting place because you may have to change your dressing or use eye drops or artificial tears due to dry eyes.


To prevent infection and bleeding during surgery and recovery, stop taking anti-inflammatory drugs and herbal supplements such as aspirin and warfarin for a few weeks. Aspirin and its derivatives, because they are some kind of anti-coagulant drugs, make the blood flow thinner and more intense, and this will increase the possibility of bleeding.




Consultation before blepharoplasty surgery

Usually, before any surgery, having a consultation session can be very important and inform the patient about the upcoming operation from all aspects. The patient’s awareness of all aspects of the operation can make him spend a better recovery period, and this issue will even have an effect on the results, because it makes the patient wait for the results after recovery with a realistic perspective.

Also, counseling sessions will make the right decisions to be made by the specialist doctor and the patient, the cosmetologist can choose the correct procedure and better drugs for the operation by considering all the medical evaluations and tests performed, and also the patient can answer all his questions. bring up and proceed with sufficient information about performing blepharoplasty cosmetic surgery.

Some of the questions that will be exchanged between the specialist doctor and the patient in the consultation session are as follows.

The level of experience of a cosmetic surgeon in performing blepharoplasty

The suitability of the patient’s conditions for upper and lower eyelid surgery

All medical records and medications used by the patient

The duration of blepharoplasty recovery and points needed for recovery

Possible side effects and dangers and ways to avoid them

The location of blepharoplasty surgery and the methods used


The method of performing blepharoplasty cosmetic surgery

The first question that is asked about how to perform blepharoplasty is related to the time and duration of surgery. If you want to perform cosmetic surgery on both upper and lower eyelids at the same time, usually the surgery may take up to 3 hours.

According to the diagnosis of your specialist doctor, local anesthesia and sedation will be used so that you do not feel pain during the operation. General anesthesia should be used as an alternative to local anesthesia, which in most cases is injected intravenously. In the first stage, the natural line of the eyelids is cut to be used as a way for the penetration of medical instruments, and the beautician can use this cut to remove all the excess fat, muscles and extra tissues, and then considering that An incision made exactly on the natural line of the eyelid can easily close the wound with small stitches.

The use of fine and small sutures in the area of the eyelid line can make traces and scars not be seen after the surgery and does not affect the appearance of the person and his eyelid. Extra muscles and tissues will be removed from inside the eyelids with very thin needles, although in the lower eyelids, stitches may not be needed depending on the method used. The stitches resulting from blepharoplasty cosmetic surgery will remain between 3 and 8 days and then will be removed according to the order of your specialist doctor to remove all the effects of blepharoplasty and leave no signs of the operation. The results of blepharoplasty will be visible immediately after the operation, although some swelling and bruising may be observed, so as a result, a little patience is needed to see the final results until this bruising and swelling are resolved.


Recovery period after blepharoplasty cosmetic surgery

One of the most important stages of any surgery, both cosmetic and therapeutic, is the recovery period, because the recovery period will allow us to see what the results are like. In some cases, the tips and instructions provided by a specialist doctor for the recovery period can accelerate the recovery. The process of improvement and great results.

With regard to the mentioned point, be careful that if you are given the necessary tips by your specialist, implement them step by step so that you can get the results you want and be satisfied with your recovery process. As it was said, the results of blepharoplasty are almost permanent and will last very well.

However, the swelling and bruising caused by the surgery will usually remain between 10 and 14 days and will be resolved over time, but slight swellings may exist for several months, which, of course, will not be apparent and will not disturb your beauty. During blepharoplasty surgery, try to avoid exposure to direct sunlight for 2 weeks. For this, you can use sunglasses and sunscreen.

To prevent temporary bleeding, avoid taking herbal and anti-inflammatory supplements such as aspirin and warfarin. Also, to avoid slowing down the healing process, avoid smoking and using tobacco. The most important thing about cosmetic surgeries, especially blepharoplasty, is to follow your specialist’s instructions carefully so that you can spend a comfortable recovery period and get the desired results. Get yours.


Complications and possible risks of eyelid cosmetic surgery

Like any other surgery, blepharoplasty can also cause some complications or bring risks, but in the meantime there is a very important point, and that point is that due to the sufficient information about blepharoplasty surgery. Side effects and risks are usually rare.

To reduce the possibility of side effects after blepharoplasty, one of the most important points is to choose an experienced and skilled cosmetologist. A skilled cosmetic doctor can make the right choices based on his experience and reduce the possibility of any errors.

Choosing a suitable doctor can allow you to safely perform blepharoplasty cosmetic surgery and not worry about any side effects because to a large extent all possible side effects and risks can be prevented and a skilled and experienced beautician from all prevention methods. And the points required are aware.

However, we are going to briefly list some of the side effects of blepharoplasty that are rarely reported, although it should be noted again that all these side effects will happen rarely and you can reduce the possibility of them by choosing an experienced doctor. Significantly reduce these complications to zero.

1- Risks caused by anesthesia and local anesthesia that can be well controlled by doctor’s evaluations

2- Dry eyes and skin, which can be easily solved by using moisturizing creams and eye drops.

3- Pain and swelling caused by blepharoplasty cosmetic surgery, which largely depends on the expertise and skill of the specialist doctor, but to reduce these problems, you can also use a cold compress during the recovery period.

4- One of the rarest events after blepharoplasty cosmetic surgery is the occurrence of skin infections, which the surgeon, due to his sufficient experience, can prevent the occurrence of such risks, so pay attention to the role of the surgeon in your recovery process, the recovery period, and also the results of blepharoplasty. It will be very bold.



The cost of blepharoplasty

The costs of a treatment process will always be of concern to people and applicants because it can play a significant role in their decision, and as a result, the costs of blepharoplasty will also be of concern to patients. It is never possible to determine a fixed price and cost for cosmetic surgery because there are many factors that can affect the final costs. For example, regarding the cost of blepharoplasty, things such as the level of expertise and experience of the cosmetic surgeon, the location of the surgery, the cost of prescriptions and drugs prescribed for anesthesia and post-operative relief, the cost of assistants and the tests performed can affect the final costs.

Treatment of knee deviation

Treatment of knee deviation

Treatment of knee deviation

Treatment of knee deviation

All about knee dislocation

Who is the best All about knee dislocation surgeon in Iran?
One of the problems and deformities seen in the knee joint is having a knee deviation. In addition to the unsightly appearance of the legs, knee deviation also causes movement problems. Several reasons cause knee deviation and subsequent problems. This complication can be seen in the age groups of children and adults. Nowadays, various non-invasive and surgical methods are used to treat knee deviation, which have positive effects. In this article, we are going to describe the causes of knee deviation and discuss the methods of knee deviation correction and treatment. Stay with us until the end of the article to learn more about the treatment methods of this bone abnormality.

Treatment of knee deviation

Just as it takes a long time to lose weight, even up to two years, body contouring can take the same amount of time to achieve good results.

Sculpting and its complications

Whether body contouring has side effects will vary from case to case. In general, any surgical procedure if it is not performed in a principled manner by a specialist and experienced doctor; It may be associated with risks. It is the same with the disadvantages of body contouring. Some of these complications include:

The asymmetry of both sides of the surgical area should not be the same.

Blood clots or bleeding

Incisions not healing properly

Complications from anesthesia, such as nausea, vomiting, or difficulty waking up.


Pain and swelling

Damage to nerves, blood vessels, muscles, or organs

Nerve damage that causes numbness and weakness

Lung or heart problems

Types of knee deviation

Knee deviation occurs in different types. Its types are determined according to the side of the knee deviation angle. The deviation of the knee causes changes in the bones of the lower leg and ankle. In the following, we will examine the most common types of knee deviation.

knee brace


Bracket type knee deviation is also called genovarum. In this type of knee deviation, as the knees move away from each other, the ankles come closer together. So that by observing the legs from a distance, you can realize that the shape of the legs is bracketed.


Crossed knee


The disorder that causes the knees to be crossed or X-shaped is called an orthopedic genovalgum disorder. In cross legs, the ankles are further apart and the knees are closer together. The inward deviation of the knees is clearly visible in this type of knee deviation.




Knee setback


Knee retraction is also known as knee extension or knee roll. This complication is often observed in women and athletes are more at risk of this type of knee deviation than other people. Knee setback can be caused by rotational or non-rotational deformity of the knee joint.

Treatment of knee deviation
Causes of knee deviation


In most children, knee deviation abnormality is known as a congenital phenomenon and problem. But malnutrition and suffering from some diseases are also considered as other causes of knee deviation. Among these diseases are:


. Rickets disease due to malnutrition and lack of vitamin D in the body

. Blunt’s disease and stoppage of bone growth plates around the knee

. Paget’s disease, weakening of bone tissue and bracketing of the legs

. Arthritis disease and bending of the knees due to cartilage corrosion and wear of the knee joint

Sudden impact and injuries



Complications and problems caused by knee deviation


Tilting and deviation of the knee causes many problems for the disease. As the deviation becomes more severe, the number of problems also increases. Among the complications and problems caused by knee deviation are:


Bad shape and deformity of the legs

. Putting more pressure on the knees and having knee pain

. Inflammation of the knees due to bearing double pressure

. Pain and reduced range of motion in the hip area

. Inability to maintain balance while walking

. Hearing the sound from the knee joint

. Misalignment of the knees

. Knee instability

. Knee stiffness and dryness


How to diagnose knee deviation


The shape of the legs clearly shows the deviation of the knee. By referring to an orthopedic specialist, he can detect deformities and crooked knees by observing the appearance of the legs. To determine the amount of complications that knee deviation has, the attending physician takes a complete description of the patient’s condition in different states and activities. Then, by performing stretching movements on the patient’s legs and observing his walking, he estimates the severity of the knee bend. Next, it uses imaging methods for more accurate diagnosis. Imaging with the help of X-rays or MRI imaging is one of the most common and accurate methods of diagnosing this orthopedic complication. The type of knee deviation is also detected in these stages.



Treatment of knee deviation in children and adolescents


In order to treat knee deviation in children and teenagers, they must be examined by an orthopedic specialist at the same age. For this reason, if parents notice that their child’s knee is bent or crossed, they must consult a specialist doctor. The most important work that should be done by the doctor is the examination of the knees, the examination of the ankles, the examination to check whether the soles of the feet are smooth or not, and also the examination of the child’s pelvis. The paraclinical procedure that is performed is photographing the knees of a child or teenager while standing. If the knee deviation treatment is done in time and correctly at this age, it brings very good results and basically knee deviation in children and teenagers can be corrected.


Treatment methods in children and adolescents is to correct the patient’s calcium status, which is done by giving drugs containing calcium and vitamin D, which strengthens and corrects knee deviation.


The things that are very useful in children and teenagers is the use of medical insoles. Medical insoles are not only recommended to correct the flatness of the soles of the feet, but also to correct the bent or crossed position in the knees.


After scanning the soles, knowing the condition of the soles and determining the type of knee deviation, it is possible to treat the knee deviation through special medical insoles. Also, if a special bone damage is observed in the knee of children and teenagers, in some limited cases, the orthopedic surgeon will fix special splints in the knee area in order to correct the knee deviation.


Also, in very limited cases, the treatment of knee deviation in children and teenagers may require surgery and hospitalization.


Treatment of knee deviation


Methods of correction and treatment of knee deviation


The severity of the knee deviation and the type of deviation have a significant effect on determining the appropriate treatment method. The specialist doctor uses non-invasive methods to start the treatment of knee deviation. If these methods do not have favorable results, surgery will be the final treatment option. In this part of the article, we will examine the methods of correction and treatment of knee deviation.



Participating in physiotherapy sessions is one of the most effective ways to correct knee deviation. Movements performed in physiotherapy with the help of a physiotherapist often focus on the kneecap. The purpose of physiotherapy is to strengthen the muscles of the thigh and leg, as well as the bones of the knee and ankle joints. The number of physiotherapy sessions is determined by the relevant doctor.

Use of medical knee braces


There are different types of medical knee braces or braces that are used in the treatment of various knee deviations. Knee braces also control the alignment of the legs by reducing the pressure on the knees. In children who are suffering from leg deformity and knee deviation from birth, surgery is prevented by tying medical knee braces



Doing sports exercises


There are many exercises to correct the posture of the legs, crossed legs and backward knee. Performing these exercises with regular planning and under the supervision of a specialist doctor will help in improving the condition of the knees. Butterfly movement, knee stretching, etc. are among these exercises.

Osteotomy surgery


One of the most common surgical methods to treat knee deviation is osteotomy surgery. In this surgery, by shortening or lengthening the length of the leg or thigh bones, they try to correct the condition of cross legs. Special orthopedic screws are used to weld the bones. At the end of the surgery, plastering the legs will be a good way to fix and fuse the modified bones.

Treatment of knee deviation
Post-operative care

After the surgery that is done to treat the knee deviation, a person should take necessary care. Rehabilitation should be done after surgery.

Doing sports and stretching exercises will strengthen the muscles. People can resume their previous sports activities after 6 months of surgery.

People can return to work after 2 to 4 weeks. Actually, people can only sit behind the table after 4 weeks. People who have to perform physical activities in their job, must take care for three months.

In this article, we tried to talk about the deviation of the knee, the reason for the leg being braced, as well as their treatment methods. If the knee deviation is acute and the leg is braced, osteotomy surgery is performed.

After the operation, people should take care of their feet completely. As mentioned in the article, they should be completely careful for 3 to 8 months


In the above material, we examined the types of knee deviation as well as the causes, complications and treatment methods of knee deviation. Congenital problems, diseases and injuries to the knee joint are the most common causes of this condition. Different methods of physiotherapy, braces, corrective movements and surgery are used to treat knee deviation. Osteotomy surgery is one of the most common knee deviation surgery methods.





Treatment of knee deviation

Height Increase Surgery

height increase surgery

height increase surgery

Everything about height increase surgery by Dr. Nader Matalabizadeh, the best orthopedic surgeon:

Who is the best height increase surgery in Iran?

The increase in height is the difficult process that some people perform to reach the towering height, and it is the problem of Qasr al-Qamah. One of the biggest problems faced by Qasar al-Qama is psychological problems. Because these people always consider themselves to be weak because of their long imagination and comparing themselves to others and face mental problems resulting from this thinking. In this article, we are not going to talk about long-term surgery, my dear, please stay tuned until the end.


height increase surgery

What is height increase?

Height increase operation is usually done for various reasons. In some cases, this operation is done to correct length inequality in different organs, but in general, the purpose of this operation is to increase height significantly with surgery. This height increase of several inches has caused Many people do this every year



Scientific investigation of the conditions of surgery to increase height


From a scientific point of view, the growth of boys and girls is controlled by a hormone called growth hormone in the body. Usually, the normal activity of this hormone is up to a certain age, and the activity after this age is considered a type of disorder in the body.


After boys and girls reach a certain age, the activity of growth hormone stops and, as the famous saying goes, bone growth and height increase stop. Usually, the cessation of growth hormone secretion and closure of the growth plate occurs in girls between 15 and 16 years of age and in boys between 17 and 20 years of age.


Therefore, the use of growth-promoting drugs that we see in many media and advertisements that claim to increase height even at the age of 35 is just propaganda and lies.


Usually, the only way to increase height after passing the growing age and closing the bone growth plates in both girls and boys is surgery to increase height. In relation to the issue of how realistic and possible surgery is to increase height, it should be said that this operation is a feasible type of operation and many people in the world have experienced it. But the point that is very important and important in relation to this issue is that surgery to increase height is a highly specialized operation and only people who are experts and skilled in this field are able to handle it well.

height increase surgery
Height increase surgery and the reasons for doing it


Today, height increase surgery is considered as a medical need at the community level, because short height sometimes leaves severe psychological effects that should not be ignored, and this is definitely the reason why in other countries, there are always some specialists in They work in this field. For example, in America, several large centers are engaged in performing height-enhancing surgeries. Or, for example, in Europe, mostly in Germany, France, Spain, Sweden, and Italy, there are many centers operating in this field, and in Asia, China, Russia, and India, they are very active in this field, and a significant number of doctors are active in this field, and Periodically, they exchange the results of their research and studies in seminars related to this field.

Everything about height increase surgery Dr. Nader Tebalizadeh, orthopedic specialist

height increase surgery

Despite all these scientific events and researches and developments that were mentioned, unfortunately, this surgical method remains unknown in our country and is questionable and ambiguous even for orthopedic specialists. It is enough to ask one of the orthopedic colleagues whether to perform height increase surgery or not and see how many possible complications and risks they mention. You will receive a negative answer. . If it should be kept in mind, although doing this procedure and passing the height increase course is not an easy task, it has a well-known process with specific problems that if the applicant follows all the established principles, he will achieve the desired result without difficulty in more than 98% of cases.

height increase surgery
Examining the reasons for the decision to perform surgery in people who have increased their height with this method in the last twenty years shows that short stature in some cases causes such severe mental pressure for a short person that they almost completely isolate themselves from society.
height increase surgery
By reviewing the employment conditions in some public and private institutions, we realize that height is one of the main conditions for employment, because height is directly related to a person’s ability. Separation of spouses due to the short stature of one of the spouses, attempted suicide, inability to get a desired job and especially one’s desired spouse, loss of self-confidence, inability to drive in social activities, even difficulty in accessing the doorbell of one’s own home. They make a person enthusiastically turn to surgery.

At what age is surgery to increase height performed?


Natural growth is very effective in increasing height. For this reason, most doctors specializing in this field believe that the natural growth of the body should be completed before performing height increase surgery. From the age of 21 onwards, the natural growth of the body will be at a minimum and it will be completed at around the age of 45. This time period is the best. It’s time to do height increase.


How is height increase surgery performed?


In general, height increase is done by surgery in four stages, under the supervision of specialist doctors. At first, the patient must consult with the orthopedic specialist during the consultation sessions and explain his physical condition to them. These consultation sessions make the patient and the doctor understand each other about the surgery and the patient’s condition. After the consultation sessions, height increase is done by the surgeons It takes place. After cutting the bone and using the devices in specific parts of the bone, the conditions are provided for the stretching of the bones. After the stretching resulting from the devices, it is time to stabilize the form and length of the bone and fix the bone, and after this step, the height is increased. Achieved

Types of height increase procedures


In general, there are many methods to increase height. The selection of each of these methods is done according to the physical and financial conditions of the person. In the following, we will introduce the three main methods of increasing height and compare them:


LON method


This method is one of the widely used methods in the field of increasing height. In the LON method, bone osteotomy is performed and then a rod is placed inside the leg bone. After the rod is placed in the specified points, the lateral fixator is placed on the bone and from the outside. , it is installed on the leg and the increase in height is done gradually.


Everything about height increase surgery Dr. Nader Tebalizadeh, orthopedic specialist

MTN method


The MTN method is more popular than other methods due to some advantages it has over other methods of increasing height. One of these advantages is that walking and doing daily activities are easily possible with this method. In the method of increasing height The MTN telescopic nail is inserted into the bone and a small screw is placed on the outside of the leg. There is only a small screw on the skin.





All about prostate surgery

Who is the best Prostate surgeon in Iran?
The prostate gland is located in the lower abdomen of men and below the bladder. This gland is located around the urethra that carries urine from the bladder to the penis. Prostatectomy or prostate removal surgery includes several surgical procedures to remove a part of the prostate gland or the whole of it.


In the case of some prostate problems, including prostate cancer, as well as enlargement or swelling and acute inflammation of the prostate, it is necessary to remove part or all of the prostate to save the patient’s life and prevent the progression of the disease. The surgeon and urologist will decide how to perform prostatectomy surgery with careful examination and according to the patient’s tests.

sleeve surgery

Just as it takes a long time to lose weight, even up to two years, body contouring can take the same amount of time to achieve good results.

Sculpting and its complications


Whether body contouring has side effects will vary from case to case. In general, any surgical procedure if it is not performed in a principled manner by a specialist and experienced doctor; It may be associated with risks. It is the same with the disadvantages of body contouring. Some of these complications include:

The asymmetry of both sides of the surgical area should not be the same.

Blood clots or bleeding

Incisions not healing properly

Complications from anesthesia, such as nausea, vomiting, or difficulty waking up.


Pain and swelling

Damage to nerves, blood vessels, muscles, or organs

Nerve damage that causes numbness and weakness

Lung or heart problems


Why is prostatectomy performed?

Prostatectomy is often performed to treat localized prostate cancer. This surgery may be used alone or together with radiation therapy, chemotherapy and hormone therapy. Performing a prostatectomy to treat prostatitis and its cancer involves removing the entire prostate and part of its surrounding tissue, including lymph nodes.


Surgery to remove the prostate may also be used to treat urethral obstruction caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Prostatectomy for the treatment of benign prostate enlargement includes simple open prostatectomy surgery. This surgery resolves urinary symptoms and complications caused by urinary obstruction due to BPH. These symptoms include:


. Urinary frequency, urgent need to urinate

. Difficulty starting to urinate

. slow urination (prolonged)

Increasing the frequency of urination at night

. Interruption of urine flow

. Inability to completely empty the bladder

. Urinary tract infection

. Inability to urinate

Types of prostate removal surgery

Depending on the treatment method, there are different types of prostatectomy surgery:

Radical prostatectomy surgery


This surgery is actually a treatment for men with localized prostate cancer. A surgeon can perform radical prostatectomy using different techniques, which include:


Radical prostatectomy surgery

Open radical prostatectomy surgery

Radical prostatectomy surgery by laparoscopic method


Simple open prostatectomy


This method is usually recommended for men who have severe urinary symptoms and an enlarged prostate gland. An enlarged prostate is known as benign prostatic hyperplasia or BPH. This surgery does not remove the entire prostate, and although it is performed as a radical prostatectomy, only part of it is removed. It removes the blockage from the prostate that has caused urinary retention. The surgical team will discuss the pros and cons of each technique and your preferences to determine which method is best for you.

Preparation for surgery


Before surgery, the doctor may want to perform a test that uses a scope to look inside the urethra and bladder (cystoscopy). This test allows the doctor to check the size of the prostate and examine the urinary tract. The doctor may also want to do other tests, such as blood tests or tests to measure the prostate and urine flow.


Follow your doctor’s instructions regarding pre-treatment measures. Here are some things to discuss with your doctor:


Medications: Tell your doctor about any prescription or over-the-counter medications or supplements you are taking. This is especially important if you use blood thinners and over-the-counter pain relievers such as aspirin. Your surgeon may ask you to stop taking medications that increase the risk of bleeding a few days before surgery.

Avoiding food before surgery: Your doctor will probably ask you to avoid eating and drinking after midnight before surgery. On the morning of the operation, take only the medicines prescribed by the doctor with a small amount of wat

Bowel preparation before surgery: Your surgeon may ask you to do an enema before surgery. You will be given instructions to perform an enema and clear your bowels on the morning of surgery.

Procedures after surgery: Ask your doctor how long you will need to stay in the hospital after the operation and plan ahead to return home because you will not be able to drive after the operation.

Activity limitation: You may not be able to work or perform heavy activities for several weeks after surgery. Ask your doctor how long it will take to heal.


Prostate removal surgery procedure


Before the surgery, you will be under general anesthesia, which means you will not be conscious during the procedure. Or spinal anesthesia may be used so that you are conscious during surgery but do not feel pain.

Open radical prostatectomy surgery


The surgeon makes an incision in the lower abdomen from below the navel to the top of the pubic bone. In rare cases, this incision is made between the anus and the scrotum (perineal surgery). After carefully cutting the prostate gland from the surrounding nerves and blood vessels, the surgeon separates the prostate along with the surrounding tissues. Finally, the incision is sutured.

Simple open prostatectomy surgery


After anesthesia, the doctor performs a cystoscopy. A flexible scope (cystoscope) is passed through the penis to see inside the urethra, bladder, and prostate area. Then the doctor places a tube (Foley catheter) inside the penis that extends to the bladder. This tube drains the urine during the operation. The doctor makes an incision below the navel, and depending on the method used by the doctor, it may be necessary to make an incision in the bladder to reach the prostate. If you have a hernia or bladder problems, your doctor may also use this surgery to treat these problems.


After the doctor removes the part of the prostate that is causing the symptoms, one or two temporary drainage tubes may be inserted through holes in the skin near the surgical site. One tube goes directly into the bladder (suprapubic tube) and the other tube goes into the area where the prostate was removed.


After surgery


After surgery, you should expect the following:


Intravenous painkillers are used.

Your doctor will ask you to walk on the day of surgery or the day after.

You will likely be discharged from the hospital the day after surgery.

When visiting home, a catheter is in place.

You should resume your activities gradually.

You will not be able to drive for a few days after the operation.

You should visit the doctor several times after the operation to make sure that you are in good condition.

Sexual activity is possible six to eight weeks after surgery.



Risks of radical prostatectomy surgery


The risks of this surgery are:


Urinary tract infection

urinary incontinence

erectile dysfunction (impotence)

Anal damage (in rare cases)

Urethral or bladder neck stricture

Formation of cysts containing lymph (lymphocele)


Risks of simple open prostatectomy surgery


Although open prostatectomy surgery is effective in relieving urinary symptoms, the risk of complications is higher and the recovery period is longer than other methods of treating enlarged prostate. Risks of open prostatectomy include:


. Heavy bleeding

Urinary tract infection

. urinary incontinence

. dry orgasm

Erectile dysfunction (impotence)

. Urethral or bladder neck stricture








body sculpting

body sculpting

body sculpting

Everything about body sculpting

Who is the best rhinoplasty body sculpting in Iran?
Body shaping is done with the aim of slimming and reducing size in different parts of the body (abdomen and sides). Sculpting is used early to change the shape of the body. In this procedure, the specialist doctor drains the fats and performs surgery for the desired body shape for the clients. In the rest of this article, what is sculpture and how is it done? Who are the right candidates for this procedure? We will also talk about the side effects of body contouring surgery and the risks of this operation, so stay tuned.


body sculpting

What is sculpting?

In the past, due to the lack of advanced medical facilities, people who were looking for weight loss and a beautiful body could reach their ideal body only by using different diets, which was difficult for many people to tolerate. But today, with the advancement of medical science, there are many operations, including body contouring, which has made it easier to achieve a beautiful body.


In fact, body shaving is a surgical operation, in which people who have localized obesity can use body shaving to remove excess fat and achieve their desired fitness.


This operation does not require anesthesia in most of the methods, and patients will be operated on in some parts of the body under local anesthesia. The recovery period usually lasts up to a week, and after that, none of the side effects of surgery can be seen in the patient. Abdominal contouring is performed in several ways, and we will introduce each of them below.


Belly and side sculpting


Accumulation of fats is observed mostly in the abdomen and sides. There are many factors that cause weight gain. Among these, we can mention improper nutrition, inactivity and genetic problems. This surgery helps people achieve their ideal body despite having difficult and difficult diets or heavy exercise programs.


Complications of body sculpting


Complications of body sculpting have been observed between one and two percent of clients. These possible complications include the following:


. Skin infections

. inflammation

. Bleeding

. Nerve damage


The BMI of the client’s body should not be more than 30. In such a situation, the possibility of complications will increase. These people are not significantly overweight and can achieve their ideal body by doing sports and short-term diets. As a result, the doctor will not agree to perform this operation.


Before the sculpting operation


Review your medical history. Be prepared to answer questions about current and past medical conditions. Talk about any medications you are taking or have recently taken, as well as any surgeries you have had.


Tell your doctor if you are allergic to any medicine. If your desire for surgery is related to weight loss, your doctor will likely ask detailed questions about your weight gain and loss.

Do a physical examination. Your doctor will examine your abdomen to determine your treatment options. It may also take pictures of your abdomen for medical records.

Discuss your expectations. Explain why you want a tummy tuck, and what you hope for in terms of appearance after the procedure. Make sure you understand the benefits and risks, including scarring.


The difference between body contouring and lipomatics


Lipomatics is one of the best body contouring methods to achieve the desired and suitable shape of the body, and the features of this surgery include:


Getting rid of excess body fat at high speed

No need to make incisions in the abdomen or different parts of the body

. Making a hole and inserting a rod to remove the fat

. The removed fats are used for other parts of the body for volume.


The fat removed in this method will be injected into different areas of the body such as the chest and hips. In some cases, they shape the fat in the abdominal areas to create a sports six pack.


Body sculpting is not effective for treating obesity! Rather, it is done to reduce fats in different areas of the body. If genetic factors are involved in your weight gain, you can lose weight by doing this procedure. In the next steps, stop the process of gaining weight again.

body sculpting
Different methods of sculpting are:


. Liposuction


. liposuction

. lipolyzer

. Mammoplasty

. Abdominoplasty

. Brachioplasty

. Lift run

. Hip lift

. Water jet or air jet

In general, people who can’t achieve their desired fitness despite exercise and diet, can go to the doctor and undergo body contouring.


By performing this procedure, excess body fat is lost in a short period of time and no damage is done to the vessels, nerves and internal organs of the body.


The point that you should pay attention to is that body shaping is not for weight loss and is mostly done to remove localized fat and reduce the volume of different body organs.


Therefore, doctors always recommend that people reach and stabilize their ideal weight with exercise and healthy nutrition; Then proceed to perform body contouring.

What is lipomatic body contouring like?


One of the most popular body contouring methods is lipomatic body contouring. This method is also called fat removal.


In this method, stubborn fats that have accumulated in the abdomen, sides, thighs, hips, etc., are extracted from the body using a small tube called a cannula. This fat can be refined and injected into different parts of the body.


The cannulas are connected to a strong suction device and by creating negative pressure and strong suction, they cause the fats to be extracted from the body.


In lipomatics, in addition to the vibrating movements of the tube causing fat to be crushed, ultrasonic waves are also used. When these waves collide with fat tissue, they destroy fat cells and turn them into liquid, which makes it easier to remove fat. In general, with the same pattern, these fats will be destroyed.


This work makes the work much easier for the surgeon and the accuracy of the work is also higher. In the lipomatic operation, the vessels and nerves adjacent to the fat tissue will not be damaged, and the appearance of the operation will be accurate and uniform.


It can be said that today, this surgery is very common and many people are applying for it.


Lipomatic surgery is a safe procedure that helps the health of the body by removing fats from the body. Because by extracting fats, the risk of fatty liver disease is also reduced. All stages of this operation are performed under local anesthesia and in rare cases anesthesia may be used.


The durability of this operation also depends on several factors. If the patient can live a healthy lifestyle and keep his weight stable, the result of this surgery will be permanent.


What is the difference between liposuction and liposuction?

Both of these operations are a subset of sculpting and refer to the removal of excess fat in the body; But in liposuction, fats are destroyed using heat and can no longer be used.


Meanwhile, in lipomatics, the extracted fats are crushed by physical movements, and as a result, they are living cells that can be re-injected after purification.




How is abdominoplasty body contouring performed?


In the procedure of abdominal beauty or abdominoplasty, unlike lipomatics, incisions are made on the abdomen. This procedure is performed to tighten the abdominal tissues and remove excess skin and fat.


The procedure is that long incisions are made in the lower abdomen and the upper part of the pubic area.

Using the created incisions, the doctor removes excess tissue and fat from the abdomen using a surgical blade or a thermal cutter and stitches the muscles of the abdominal wall closer to each other. The excess skin of the abdomen is also removed and the navel is sutured in the specified place.


This sculpting method is suitable for people who have a sagging and loose stomach. This cosmetic procedure is invasive and is performed under anesthesia; Therefore, pre- and post-operative care is very important.


Even though this operation has its own risks like any other surgery; But if the doctor has enough skill and experience, the complications and risks of this operation will be minimized; Therefore, people who want to do this surgery should be very careful in choosing a doctor.


Abdominoplasty surgery with abdominoplasty method

In this method, the fats do not have the necessary quality to be injected into other parts of the body. The amount of liquid is determined by the doctor’s diagnosis based on the physical condition of the person and the amount of excess weight.


. Accumulation of fluid under the skin (seroma)

Drainage tubes in place after surgery can help reduce the risk of excess fluid. The doctor may also remove fluids using needles and syringes.


. Delayed wound healing


Sometimes areas of the body along the incision line heal very little or begin to separate. You may be prescribed antibiotics during and after surgery to prevent infection. Scarring and fissures are sometimes permanent, but along the bikini line they are easily hidden. The length and visibility of scars varies from person to person.


.tissue damage or death

Fatty tissue deep in your skin in the abdominal area is damaged or dies. Smoking increases this risk. Depending on the size of the area, the tissue may heal on its own or require a reconstructive surgical procedure.


. Change in skin feel


Abdominal tissue repositioning can rarely affect the nerves in the abdomen and upper thighs. You will likely experience decreased sensation or numbness. This usually decreases in the months after the operation. Like any other type of surgery, tummy tucks carry the risk of bleeding, infection, and adverse reactions to anesthesia.


  1. 1. The patient is completely unconscious during the operation
  2. 2. Two incisions will be made in 2 different parts of the body with appropriate distance
  3. 3. One incision in the pelvic region near the genital area and another incision in the center of the abdomen above the navel
  4. 4. The loose skin of the desired area is cut and pushed away from the muscle
  5. 5. Finally, the skin on both sides is stitched together




Suitable candidates for body contouring


People who cannot tolerate long and hard diets

Those who have joint problems and are not able to exercise

People who were in the recovery period and became obese due to inactivity

People who suffer from depression and are not satisfied with their physical condition after treatment


Important note


In some people, it is difficult to achieve an ideal body by doing sports and following a proper diet. Fats may not be lost in different areas of the body and cause disproportion in different areas of the body. The best way for these loved ones will be body sculpting.


On the other hand, some clients have normal physique and there is no need to perform this surgery for them. Contrary to the insistence of these clients, the diagnosis of the need for this weight loss and fitness method is made only with the diagnosis and approval of a specialist doctor.


This procedure has therapeutic aspects for people with a BMI above 40. Because these people suffer from obesity and this amount will no longer be considered overweight.




Is lipomatic or liposuction better?


Lipost is one of the new generations of lipomatic devices and drains more fats. In general, it is not significantly different from lipomatics, and it is the same fat removal with a newer device.


Who is the best candidate for body contouring?


The best candidates for body contouring are people who, despite being at an ideal weight, have excess fat in a part or parts of their body. This fat can be in the abdomen, hips, sides, thighs, etc. Of course, people who apply for surgery must be physically and mentally healthy.




How much time should pass after giving birth to be able to perform body contouring surgery?


Pregnancy causes mothers to lose their fitness. This excess weight and body sagging can be seen in the abdomen, sides, thighs and breasts. Several causes, including weight gain and breastfeeding, will cause this issue. This pleasant experience of becoming a mother is accompanied by body deformation.


Mothers can perform surgery when the breastfeeding period is over. In such a situation, their physical condition will be ready to perform body sculpting. This issue will not cause any disturbance in the re-pregnancy of loved ones. It should be noted that with a second pregnancy, if required by loved ones, body sculpting should be repeated. Because the skin will sag.

The best body contouring doctor in Tehran




A good bodybuilding doctor should have each of these characteristics.


. Obtaining official licenses from the Ministry of Health and activity license

. Dedicated and sanitary rooms for surgery

. Use of modern equipment

. Specialist medical staff and experienced doctors

. Free specialized surgical consultation




What will it look like after body sculpting?


After body sculpting, the goal is to achieve the ideal body of the client. At the end of this procedure, the body will be fit and the body will be more shapely.



How much does body contouring cost?


There are many factors that make the costs of this surgery variable. Remember that the main parameter to consider when choosing a surgeon is the level of expertise and skill of the surgeon and not the lower salary.


The total cost of your bodybuilding will be spent on several expenses. The cost of body contouring is determined based on the area under surgery, the number of areas, the skill of the surgeon, side costs and operating room costs. If you need to be hospitalized, the costs will increase.



This operation does not require anesthesia in most of the methods and the clients will be operated on an outpatient basis with local anesthesia in parts of the body. The recovery period usually lasts up to a week, and after that, none of the side effects of the surgery can be seen in the patient. Abdominal and side body contouring is done in several ways.

Body sculpting is not effective for treating obesity! Rather, it is done to reduce fats in different areas of the body. If genetic factors are involved in your weight gain, you can lose weight by doing this procedure. In the next steps, stop the process of gaining weight again.


This procedure has therapeutic aspects for people with a BMI above 40. Because these people suffer from obesity and this amount will no longer be considered overweight




body sculpting
body sculpting
body sculpting
Lumbar disc surgery

Lumbar disc surgery

Lumbar disc surgery

Lumbar disc surgery

All about lumbar disc surgery

Who is the best Lumbar disc surgery surgeon in Iran?
“I have a lumbar disc!” ; We have all heard this sentence many times, but how many of us have paid attention to its meaning? In fact, the purpose of this sentence is to express the problem that occurs in the lumbar disc, otherwise a person without a lumbar disc will not be able to walk, stand and do many other things.


Therefore, having a lumbar disc is not very strange; What differentiates it in different people is the protrusion of the disc. In this article, we want to give a complete explanation about the lumbar disc and its surgical method. Follow us to the end.

Lumbar disc surgery

Lumbar disc surgery

What are the symptoms?


.Weakness with spasms in the legs and especially behind the knees

Numbness and feeling of weakness in the muscles

Feeling of localized back pain (may not occur for many people!)

Feeling of pain in the leg and side of the leg

Occurrence of movement disorders

Muscle burning

Pain in the buttock area

Legs falling asleep and tingling

Decreased sexual desire and urinary disorders in severe cases

Sciatica or radicular pain


We must say that the first symptoms of a lumbar disc occur with pain in the abdomen and back. Then, by weakening the disc, only one incident is enough for other symptoms such as pain in the legs, thighs, etc. to show themselves.



What are the causes of disc protrusion and rupture in the lumbar region?


Falling down suddenly

Bearing high pressure by the joints

.Bending forward frequently

Moving and lifting heavy objects

Arthritis of the spine

Abrasion of nuts

Being pregnant

Accidents and being hit

Prolonged sitting over many years

Repeated turning of the trunk to one side

Long drive

Inability to maintain muscle balance in some parts of the body

Lumbar disc surgery
What people are more susceptible to infection?

Usually, the highest incidence of this disease is related to people between 30 and 40 years old, but it does not mean that such a problem does not occur at younger ages.

Another type of disc, which is referred to as juvenile disc, occurs in the upper part of the lumbar vertebrae and is caused by blows experienced by a person at a younger age (approximately 20 years). In such a situation, over time, the water in the discs decreases and conditions for their fragility and cracking are provided. Therefore, with increasing age, the possibility of suffering from lumbar disc complications also increases.


How can you diagnose a herniated or ruptured disc in the back?

There are various ways to diagnose this problem, the most basic of which is physical examination by a specialist, in such a way that the doctor usually asks the patient to lie down and direct his leg vertically upwards. Another method is to examine the patient’s thumb and check his ability to walk on his toes and heels.

Also, using the SLR test can help the doctor diagnose. Other methods of diagnosing this disease include the following:

MRI: Imaging in this way is done by large magnets, radio frequencies and a computer.

Radiography: This method, known as X-ray, can image bones, organs and internal tissues.

  1. T. Scan or C. Oh you. T. Scan: CT scan is also an imaging method that provides us with more details of the body than X-ray. In fact, it can be said that this method is a combination of computer imaging and radiography.

Myelogram: In this diagnosis method, dye is injected into the spinal canal so that a clear image of the body structure can be obtained with X-ray.

Electromyography or electrical myography (EMG): This process measures muscle response or electrical activity in response to muscle nerve stimulation.

It should be noted that if you feel pain in the back area, do not act arbitrarily and to diagnose it, you must consult a neurologist.

Lumbar disc surgery

Lumbar disc surgery


The majority of people who suffer from problems in the lumbar intervertebral disc can be cured without surgery, depending on the type and severity of the disease, different treatment methods are determined for them by the doctor.


Lumbar disc surgery is one of the ways to treat this disease, which is used in very severe cases and when the person does not respond to other treatment methods.


1-Laminectomy surgery


It is one of the oldest methods used to operate the lumbar disc. In this method, the surgeon first opens the spinal canal, which is covered by bones called lamina. Then he removes a part of the lamina as well as the ligamentum flavum in order to reach the nerve root. At this stage, the nerve root is pushed aside to be able to remove the disc from its back.


It is interesting to know that this method was performed without the use of a microscope for several years.


2- Microscopic surgery


This surgical method is also called microdiscectomy, which was used with the advent of the microscope. The process of this surgery is almost similar to the previous method. With the difference that in this method, a lumbar gap is created and the amount removed from the lamina bone is also less.


The use of a microscope in microdiscectomy surgery is that it helps to see the nerve root and disc more clearly.


3- Endoscopic surgery


Unlike the previous two methods, in this method, the patient’s spinal canal is not touched. Rather, a needle enters the disc through the intervertebral foramen. Then tubes enter the disc space, whose diameter gradually increases.


At this stage, a narrow tube with a lens (endoscope) attached to its head enters the disc space and the disc is removed. Therefore, it can be said that the possibility of adhesion in this surgical method is very small.


4- Laser surgery


The most common use of this method is when the disc is not completely ruptured. The way it works is that the laser beam is directed to the disc space by a needle and with the help of an optical fiber. This burns the center of the disc and creates a microscopic hole inside the disc.


In this situation, the pressure inside the disc decreases and then by applying a negative pressure, the core of the disc can be pulled inward. These actions cause the disc to move away from the nerve root and ultimately improve the person’s disease.

5- Open surgery


Another type of surgery and the most common of them is open surgery, in which the damaged part is removed from the body and replaced with platinum or a special tool. This method is usually used in very serious situations.

Lumbar disc surgery
Methods that can be used as an alternative to surgery


What is the importance of lumbar disc treatment?


Timely action is very important for the treatment of lumbar disc. Because it may be possible to solve this problem in the early stages with simple surgeries or even without the need for surgery. But neglecting the symptoms and ignoring them can aggravate the disease and eventually cause movement disorders in the person.


In such a situation, a simple surgery is no longer the answer, and the patient must undergo more serious and extensive treatments, which are sometimes performed with the placement of platinum and a special tool in the human body.


Failure to treat lumbar disc on time can also cause the following cases.


Sexual disorders

Intestinal and bladder disorders

Abrasion of nuts

Destruction of disc and even vertebrae

Limping leg

Numbness of the legs

And …


Considering that the nerve, like the skin and many other parts of the body, is not able to regenerate and repair, therefore, it is necessary to take any problem and disorder in it seriously.




Does lumbar disc surgery have complications?


One of the common people’s thoughts about dick surgery is that after the surgery, you cannot do many activities and in general, the normal routine of life will undergo drastic changes. In fact, it cannot be said that this belief is false or true; Because the severity of the disease can be different in different people and it is also different depending on the type of operation that is performed for them.


But we must say that today, with the advancement of technology and the arrival of new methods for disc surgery in medical science, the complications caused by this type of surgery have been minimized as much as possible, and it is possible to restore a person’s health with minimal restrictions.




Prevention of complications


In order to prevent problems related to the disc and spine, it is recommended:


Keep your body weight in an ideal state.

Get help from the correct methods of lifting objects.

Strengthen your abdominal and back muscles and don’t forget to exercise.




Pain after surgery


Immediately after surgery, you will have some pain in and around the area where the operation was performed. Accommodations will be given to you to ensure your comfort and help with your mobility. The main pain in your leg that you had before the operation usually goes away immediately after the operation, but if this does not happen, you should talk to your nurse or doctor.


A very small number of people will have difficulty urinating after the operation. This problem is usually temporary, but in rare cases, such as nerve damage, it may cause problems with proper leg or bladder function. It is important to talk to your doctor or nurse immediately if you have any problems.


It can take up to 6 weeks for the general pain and fatigue to completely go away after your operation.

Leg pain after lumbar disc surgery


A question that sometimes affects the minds of patients is about the possible causes of pain after lumbar disc surgery. There are several categories of these pains.


1- The first group are pains that occur the first few days after surgery and are similar to the pains before the surgery. These pains are due to the stretching of the root and are usually self-limiting.


2- The second group of pains is in the form of tingling and numbness in the way of the previous pains and usually scares the patients, but these pains are insignificant and normal, so they disappear gradually.


3- The third group is fatal and severe shooting pains that have not improved or have increased despite surgery, in which case there is a possibility of disc bleeding or recurrence and needs to be investigated.


4- The fourth category is new stabbing pains after a long period of operation, which suggests the possibility of adhesion, recurrence, or new discopathy.




Rehabilitation after lumbar spine surgery


Your treatment team would like to get you up and moving as soon as possible, usually the day after surgery. This is because inactivity can increase your risk of developing a blood clot (DVT), and movement can speed up the healing process.


After your operation, a physical therapist will help you safely regain your strength and range of motion. He will teach you some simple exercises that you can do at home to help you recover.


Sutures after surgery


You will have stitches after the operation to close any incisions made during the procedure. Deep sutures placed under the skin do not need to be pulled and will disappear. If absorbable surface sutures are used, they will not need to be pulled.


Non-absorbable sutures will be removed 5 to 10 days after surgery. Before you leave the hospital, your doctor will remove the stitches.


Your stitches may be covered with simple adhesive tape, such as a large Band-Aid. Be careful not to get this cover wet when washing. After your stitches are removed, you do not need to wear them and you can shower and bathe as usual.




Marital relationship after lumbar disc surgery


There is a misconception that spinal surgeries affect sexual power! But what does science say about this?


In general, after lumbar disc surgery, it is better to have very little sexual intercourse for a month, but there is no change in the level of sexual desire or sexual pleasure. After one month, when the symptoms and pain are almost completely healed, patients can experience relaxed sexual intercourse with less vigor and gradually within the next two months, they will be completely back to normal.


But some patients have suffered from cauda equina syndrome or horse tail due to delay in surgical treatment and then referred. In this case, which is sometimes irreversible, the patient may experience sexual, urinary, or movement complications, sphincter, etc., and sometimes surgery will not be beneficial for them.


Exercise after lumbar disc surgery


Patients who have undergone lumbar disc surgery with the microsurgery method should usually start swimming and walking after one month of surgery. These patients can do other sports after three months. Our recommendation is that they benefit from walking, running and swimming, especially backstroke, but it is better to avoid weight lifting and martial arts and jumping as much as possible.


Due to the disease of the lumbar discs of these people, the chance of recurrence of discopathy increases with heavy sports. But with water sports or walking, spinal muscles are strengthened and therefore the recurrence rate is reduced. Note that sports restrictions are not caused by surgery; Rather, it is caused by disc disease that afflicts patients and surgery has been able to minimize that limitation.


Walking after lumbar disc surgery


As the recovery period begins after back surgery, the patient should follow the doctor’s instructions at home and in the hospital. One of the things prescribed by the doctor is rehabilitation exercises that focus on returning the person to a normal state. Following these instructions will have an effect on the speed of recovery. Exercise causes the release of endorphin hormones in the body, and by increasing blood circulation, it raises a person’s mood during the recovery period.


The doctor and physiotherapist advise the patient to start walking as soon as possible and gradually increase it. In addition to preventing muscle atrophy, walking also helps prevent blood clots and constipation. Patients should walk as much as possible but not push themselves. During hospitalization, the patient is encouraged to start walking if able.




The cause of lumbar disc recurrence after surgery

  1. Disc height


Patients with lumbar disc had higher preoperative disc height (19.1±4.6 mm) than non-diseased individuals (15.0±3.3 mm).

  1. Cigarettes


Due to the importance of ossification in the spinal surgery site, smoking should be avoided. Smokers had an 18.5% higher recurrence rate than non-smokers.

  1. Gender


According to the research, the risk of lumbar disc recurrence is strongly related to male gender. Other studies have not shown a relationship between gender and secondary incidence.

  1. Employment


Lifting heavy objects as part of the job has a lot to do with lumbar disc recurrence. In contrast, manual workers were not significantly at risk compared to non-manual workers. Surgeons should advise their patients to limit their strenuous manual work to prevent lumbar disc recurrence.


Driving after surgery


Before driving again, you must stop using any sedatives that make you drowsy. You should be comfortable with your driving position and be able to stop in an emergency situation without any pain (you can practice this before you start driving). Most people feel ready to drive after 2 to 6 weeks, this time depends on the size of the operation.


Call your doctor or the hospital where you had the procedure for advice in the following cases:


..the presence of liquid discharge or redness at the wound site

Your stitches coming out

Getting your clothes wet with blood

Having a fever of 38 degrees or higher

Increased pain, numbness, or weakness in your legs, back, or hips

You cannot move your legs

Not being able to control your stool or urine

Have a severe headache

Have sudden shortness of breath (it can be a sign of pulmonary embolism, pneumonia or other cardiovascular problems)



Lumbar disc surgery
Spine surgery

Spine surgery

Spine surgery

Spine surgery

Everything about spine surgery

Who is the best Spine surgery in Iran?
When a person goes to the doctor with a series of severe symptoms in the spine, the neurologist can examine and physically examine the patient. If the patient has pain in the back and neck, he should be monitored for a while and you should do the right activities and see if the problem is solved or not! If you follow these tips and there is no change in the pain level, the use of painkillers and anti-inflammatory drugs will be recommended.

In many cases, the patient can recover with non-surgical treatments such as physiotherapy, home exercises or spinal injections. If the body does not respond positively to these treatments, spine surgery is suggested.

Spine surgery

Spine surgery

The spine consists of 33 bones that are placed on top of each other. These bones are connected to each other by ligaments and muscles and are aligned with each other. The spine is the main support point of the body and the person’s height is based on it. With the help of the spine, you can bend and straighten and turn your body sideways.

Curvature of the spine


When we look at the vertebral column from the side, we see curves in this column, it looks like the letter S. The spine is curved inward in the cervical region and in the lower back, and outward in the middle and lower back. The existence of these curves makes the spine like a spring absorb incoming shocks, balance and have a range of motion along the spine.

What problems does spine surgery help to treat?


Disk problems

Problems in the arms and legs that have a nervous origin

People with scoliosis (abnormal curvature of the spine)

People who suffer from back and neck pain caused by spine problems


Doctor specializing in spine surgery


Orthopedic and neurosurgeons can both treat spine problems. There used to be a belief that if a patient has significant problems in his nervous system, it is better to use a spine and neurosurgeon for his treatment such as closed spine surgery, but this notion is no longer true. Today, it is said that when faced with these problems, it is necessary to use the services of a person or a specialist who has sufficient expertise in spine problems, in other words, a back and spine specialist and has expertise in its surgery.



When deciding on surgery, the role of the spine surgeon is to educate you and help you in the decision-making process, and they will provide you with information about a wide range of options and what is technically possible, the difficulty and risk of the procedure and It describes its potential benefits. Therefore, it is important to choose a spine surgeon who provides you with correct information.

Spine surgery
Diagnosis of spinal disease


People who have unexplained back pain, spine surgery is not recommended and conservative treatment should be recommended. The following diagnostic tests can be mentioned:





Spinal surgery procedures

Discectomy or microdiscectomy


In this surgery, the intervertebral disc herniation is removed to remove the pressure on the compressed nerve. Microdiscectomy surgery is one of the minimally invasive spine surgeries.



In this surgery, the thin bony plate behind the spine or lamina is removed. This work increases the space between the spinal canal and reduces the pressure.



In this surgery, a part of the lamina vertebral arch that covers the spinal cord is removed by the surgeon. In this surgery, a smaller amount of bone will be removed than in lainectomy surgery. Laminectomy and laminotomy methods are decompression surgery methods. In these surgical methods, the compression of the spinal nerves is resolved by the tissue.



In this surgical method, the tissue or bone that forms the passage where the nerve roots branch off from the spinal cord and exit the spine will be removed.

Disk replacement


Artificial disc replacement is shown to be very effective for severe degenerative disc patients. Degenerative disc disease is a disease that can cause significant pain in the back and neck. In this surgery, an artificial disc will replace the damaged disc. This method will be used as an alternative method for welding beads.

Welding the beads


In this surgical method, two vertebrae are welded together. In this surgical method, special bone grafting tools such as rods, screws, etc. are used. There are different methods of bone grafting. Methods such as the individual’s own bone graft and another individual’s bone graft. Bead welding is done with different approaches.


ALIF, PLIF, TLIF, LIF surgeries


This surgery is related to the fusion of the lumbar vertebrae, which will be used to stabilize the vertebrae of the spine and eliminate movement between the bones.


Fusion of the front lumbar vertebrae

Fusion of the posterior lumbar vertebrae

Lumbar intervertebral fusion that is created in the process of this surgical procedure.

Lateral intervertebral fusion, which is surgically performed using a minimally invasive approach on the lateral part of the body


Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery (MIS)


Minimally invasive spine surgery (MIS) was first performed in the 1980s, but there have been rapid advances recently. Advances in technology enable spine surgeons to patient-select and treat an evolving array of spine disorders, such as degenerative disc disease, disc herniation, fractures, tumors, infections, instability, and deformity.

MIS was developed to treat spinal disorders with less muscle involvement. This can lead to faster recovery, less blood loss during surgery, and a faster return to normal function. In some MIS procedures, also known as “keyhole surgery,” the surgeon uses a small endoscope with a camera attached to the end. This endoscope is inserted into the skin through a small incision. The camera provides surgeons with a view of the inside of the body and allows access to the damaged area of the spine.

Lumbar disc surgery

Care after spine surgery


After spine surgery, the physiotherapist recommends exercises and movements to the patient.

It is possible that the person needs to stay in the hospital for 3 to 4 days. You must rest after spine surgery.

Physiotherapy exercises should start the day after the operation. Doing exercises can strengthen a person’s range of motion and muscles.

A person can use cane and walker to walk.

Walking can help the healing process.

You should sit so that your spine is completely straight.

When sleeping, it is better to lie on your back and place a pillow under your head and knees. It is better to sleep on a mattress that is not too soft. The sleeping position is very important and the patient should be careful not to twist or bend too much (fetal position) and sleep on the back.

You should take your medications according to your doctor’s instructions.

The use of some drugs such as aspirin, gelophene, anti-inflammatory and non-steroid drugs is prohibited for 3 to 6 months after spine surgery.

After the surgery, you can take a shower in coordination with the doctor. You can sit on a chair in the bathroom. You can go to the bathroom two days after the surgery. In these cases, use a waterproof dressing in the surgical area. In other cases, keep the dressing dry.

Avoid vigorous physical activities such as lifting heavy objects or even sudden turns of the back for at least 6 weeks.

Cover the wound with a bandage for the first five days, and then keep the wound dry and clean.

Avoid stress and pressure on the spine.

You can drive for a few weeks after surgery.

Consult your doctor before returning to work.

Remove the non-absorbable sutures 10 to 12 days after the operation.

Absorbent sutures that do not need to be pulled, only the ends and beginnings of the sutures should be kept clean.

The use of a belt or brace depends on the doctor and the type of surgery. In surgeries where the type of fixation is done, it is usually recommended to use a waist belt for one to two months, but in light surgeries, it is recommended only for the first few days to reduce pain.


When should you see a doctor?


Redness, severe swelling and discharge at the operation site

Impact on the operation area or fall from a height

Severe pain

Constant chills


What tips should be taken to control the pain?


In addition to taking the medicines prescribed by your doctor. Using ice in the first 48 hours after surgery can be useful.

Is scar tissue normal after surgery?


The formation of scar tissue can affect the healing process, and scar tissue is common after surgery. Scar tissue does not have any nerve endings, so it is not painful. The main cause of pain is fibrous adhesion to the nerve root. If you have scar tissue after surgery, this is completely normal. But if the pain continues after the operation and to find the cause of the pain, a full medical examination should be done.

What are the rehabilitation programs?


Appropriate physical therapy, stretching exercises, and lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking can speed up your recovery and reduce the likelihood of pain.


Spine surgery
Spine surgery

about Rhinoplasty



Everything about rhinoplasty surgery and frequently asked questions about this surgery

Who is the best rhinoplasty surgeon in Iran?
Rhinoplasty is one of the five surgeries that are performed on applicants more than others. During the treatment, a plastic surgeon corrects the condition of the cartilage and bone of the nose in order to create the desired appearance of the patient’s nose. For men and women who are dissatisfied with the size and appearance of their nose, rhinoplasty surgery can be a safe, effective and time-tested method to solve the patient’s appearance problems. When this surgery is performed by an experienced surgeon, the results can improve the balance of facial features and help patients regain self-confidence. Rhinoplasty surgery can also be used to correct structural defects such as an eagle nose, as well as breathing problems.

If you are looking for nose surgery, you need to pay attention to some important points in this regard. By reading this article, you can get more information about this nose job, its costs, risks and possible benefits.


Suitable people for rhinoplasty surgery

The vast majority of people who use surgery to change their shape are dissatisfied with the current appearance of their nose and want to improve the proportion of their nose to other parts of the face. A relatively smaller percentage of these people are patients who face discomfort or breathing problems due to structural defects or previous injuries. The right people to perform this surgery must have the right level of health and have a correct understanding of the risks and dangers of this surgery. Photos of nose surgery are shown to the patient before the treatment. It is necessary to have realistic expectations of the patient about the results of this treatment. A suitable person for cosmetic surgery to change the shape of the nose can have the following conditions:


. Have a very big or very small nose compared to other parts of the face.

. have a hump on the bridge of their nose.

. Have a wide nose.

. Their noses are droopy, forward, or appear too large.

. Have an onion tip.

. Their nostrils are too large or constricted.

have a problem of nose deviation or not placing the nose in the middle of the face.

Due to an injury, they have an asymmetry in the appearance of the nose.

. Due to problems related to the internal structure of the nose, they have breathing problems such as deviation of the blade or other related problems.

Rhinoplasty techniques

Regardless of the type of rhinoplasty a patient needs, the doctor will use one or two of the following basic techniques to correct the problem:


. Closed Rhinoplasty: This surgical technique is usually superior to other techniques because all the slits are made inside the nose and there is no need to make a slit in the external area of the nose. In this case, even though the slits are hidden, the surgeon can access most parts of the nose and correct many of its aesthetic and structural problems.

. Open rhinoplasty: Open rhinoplasty gives the surgeon better access to the cartilage and bone of the nose, but with this procedure, some scarring remains on the patient’s nose. In this case, by creating a gap at the end of the middle nasal septum (the area between the two nasal cavities), the doctor can remove the skin of the nose and repair its cartilage. After healing, very limited marks remain on the skin from the gap created, which are mostly hidden under the nose area.


Choosing the right technique


Both open and closed rhinoplasty techniques can bring very satisfactory results for the patient. In this regard, the doctor can determine the appropriate technique for each patient according to the natural appearance of the nose and the goals of the surgery

Types of plastic nose surgery


The types of plastic nose surgeries that are performed on patients are as follows:


Correcting the shape of the tip of the nose: The tip of the nose is located exactly at the end of the nose, and in some people, one side of the nose is different from the other side. For example, one side of the nose can be bigger, smaller, higher, lower or slightly deviated from the other side. However, the surgeon can create a symmetrical appearance for both sides by manipulating the condition of the cartilage under the nose.


Correction of nasal deviation: nasal deviation occurs when the bones or septum of the nose are not located in a quarter of the middle line of the face. As a result of these conditions, the patient’s nose will appear to be drawn to one side. Most of the time, nasal deviation is a hereditary problem, although the condition can also develop as a result of an injury. However, by manipulating the bones and nasal septum, surgery can permanently smooth its appearance and eliminate the deviation of the nose.


Sunken nose: Sometimes the nose of some people has a depression on the bridge of the nose, which is called a sunken nose problem. Usually, this problem is treated by manipulating the nasal cartilage or using an implant or prosthesis. The results of this treatment can give a person a smooth, flat and uniform nose in the bridge of the nose.




Nasal nose surgeon: Some people feel that the appearance of their nose is suitable from the front and it may even be suitable from the side, but what these people are dissatisfied with is the thickness and bulkiness of their nose, and that is why these people They tend to thin their noses. However, if a person’s nose is wide due to the underlying bone structure, the plastic surgeon can usually make a significant reduction in the width of the patient’s nose and thus correct the appearance of the nose according to the person’s wishes.


Nose reduction: If your nose is clearly too big for your face, rhinoplasty can be used to reduce the size of your nose. Most large noses have a bony structure that can easily be changed.


Small nose: Not everyone wants to have a smaller nose. For example, if a person’s nose has been damaged due to an accident and the bridge over it has been destroyed, or if the person’s nose is normally small, rhinoplasty surgery can be used to increase the size of the nose and produce the desired results. To raise the bridge of the nose, the plastic surgeon uses one of the following two methods:


The first method involves taking cartilage from the nose, ears or ribs and using it to change the shape of the nose.


In the second method, implants or prostheses made of silicone or other bone-like materials are used to create changes in the appearance of the patient’s nose.


Fixing the hump of the nose: The bump or hump of the nose can be caused by an injury or due to genetic issues, but genetic issues are the most common cause of the hump of the nose. A hump can be caused by all types of noses. But if you have special problems in this regard, the surgeon can simply correct the hump of your nose by manipulating the cartilage under the bridge of the nose and straighten the appearance of your nose.


Big nose tip: A big nose tip usually has a bulbous appearance and makes the tip of the nose look rounder than normal or fat. The surgeon can change the cartilage under it by manipulating the tip of the nose and modify its appearance.@dr.mostafahosseini

Preparation for surgery


Before the nose surgery operation, it is necessary for the patient to speed up the recovery period and minimize possible discomfort after the operation, as well as to reduce the risk of seeing complications after the nose job, to pay attention to the following points:


Diet: A few weeks before rhinoplasty surgery, it is important for the patient to have a healthy diet. Proper nutrition can increase the speed of the patient’s recovery and minimize the risk of infection.


Medicines: When preparing for nose surgery, the patient should inform his doctor about all the medicines he is currently taking. In fact, the use of certain drugs can cause problems for the patient before or after surgery. In this way, the doctor can temporarily prohibit the use of the drug or prescribe safe alternative drugs for the patient.


Smoking: Using tobacco can slow down the blood circulation in the body. Because in this case, oxygen cannot quickly reach the places where the cracks are created, smokers face a longer recovery period and a higher risk of infection, and the possibility of scarring is more likely to remain on their face. Although it is possible to use this treatment method for smokers, these people should refrain from smoking at least two weeks before and two weeks after surgery.


Day of surgery: The night before nose surgery, the patient should rest well and avoid eating and drinking after midnight. Before going to the hospital or surgical service center, the patient should wash his face and hair to avoid bacterial contamination. For special reasons, cosmetics or other beauty products should not be used at this time.



Because today many different types of nose surgery are used with different goals to treat people, this surgical method widely depends on the treatment characteristics of each person. However, in this regard, special measures should be taken for all types of nose surgery.



The doctor performs rhinoplasty with one of the following two methods:


General anesthesia: which is performed using a mask or injection and puts the patient in a state of complete sleep.


Anesthesia through injection into the patient’s vein: In this case, the doctor anesthetizes the patient’s face locally by injecting strong sedatives into the vein. In this way, the patient falls into a half-asleep state and will not remember much of the surgery after the anesthesia wears off.


To choose the appropriate anesthesia method for nose surgery, the doctor will talk closely with the patient.

surgical procedure


After the anesthetic has taken effect, the surgeon makes small incisions inside the nostrils or at the base of the nasal septum. In this way, the surgeon can carefully remove the skin of the nose and access its bone and cartilage. Then remove the required tissue or use a tissue graft if needed. Usually, the doctor uses conservative methods for the effect caused by surgery on the tissues around the treatment site and tries to create the desired appearance of the patient using appropriate methods. When the nose reshaping process is complete, the doctor returns the removed nose skin to its original location and creates a new nose appearance. Finally, the created gaps are closed.



closing the nose


In the first days after rhinoplasty, it is important to protect the changes made in the nasal tissue. After closing the gaps created during the surgery, the surgeon uses a splint to help maintain the new look of the nose. In some cases, the doctor also uses sterile gauze pieces or special bandages inside the nostrils. In this way, the bleeding of the patient can be reduced and the nasal septum can be stabilized in the new place. However, the use of sterile gas can cause some discomfort to the patient. Nasal gas is usually removed within a few days after the rhinoplasty surgery, and if needed, a special adhesive is used to preserve the results of the surgery.

Recovery and care after surgery


Rhinoplasty requires several weeks of recovery time, and patients should pay attention to special measures for faster recovery and to ensure that they achieve their desired aesthetic results and care before nose surgery.

The first few days after surgery


During the first 48 hours after rhinoplasty, it is necessary for the patient to rest sufficiently. Especially at this time, patients should pay attention to the following points:


Sleep in a position with their head facing up

Use clothes that do not need to be worn on the head

During this period, it is necessary to brush the teeth slowly in order to avoid inflammation of the upper lip and nose due to brushing.

Keep your face as still as possible

Use a cold compress for the nose and middle area of the face

Eat soft foods rich in nutrients and fiber

Use a tub instead of a shower to take a bath and do not remove the bandage from your nose while taking a bath

Avoid blowing air out of the nose at a high speed

Bandages and sterile nasal gauze should be changed regularly according to the doctor’s opinion


The first few weeks after treatment


Typically, patients can return to work two weeks after rhinoplasty. However, at this time, it is necessary to control the activity level by the patient and protect the sensitive tissues of the nose. At this time, patients should pay attention to the following points:


Avoid vigorous activities until the surgeon has given permission.

Avoid consuming foods containing sodium in order to reduce swelling of the nose after surgery.

Use sunscreen with an SPS level of at least 30 when going out.

Avoid using prescription glasses or sunglasses for at least four weeks. If necessary, the patient can use special glasses with a chin rest during this period to keep the shape of the glasses.


It is especially important that patients meet their surgeon regularly after surgery. Usually, the first meeting with the doctor is about a week after the rhinoplasty. At this time, the doctor will remove the stitches and bandage inside the nose. In the following, the patient’s condition is monitored periodically for the next few months



View the results of the operation


Rhinoplasty can be used to correct a number of cosmetic problems. This surgery can create more balance between the parts of the face and correct the protrusion or asymmetry of the nose. Also, rhinoplasty can play an effective role in reducing the size of the nose. However, in order to achieve ideal results, it is important for patients to be honest with their surgeon before surgery.


Rhinoplasty is unique in that it can take a year to see its final results. In this case, side effects such as swelling and bruising around the nose and eyes can prevent seeing treatment results in the nose area for the first two to three weeks after surgery. In this way, it is necessary for the patient to be patient regarding the final results of his treatment. In the first months after surgery, the nose will gradually find its new appearance. Because the final results of this treatment require time, the doctor usually asks the patient to be patient for at least one year for corrective rhinoplasty.




The rhinoplasty method has certain advantages as follows:


Creating symmetry between facial parts: limited imbalance in the nose area can cause significant defects in a person’s appearance. In this way, rhinoplasty can create a balanced appearance for the patient.


Improving appearance: changing the shape of the bridge of the nose or its head can attract people’s attention to other parts of the face.


Appropriate size: reducing the width of the nose even by a small amount can have a significant effect on the fit of the nose with the rest of the person’s face.


Removing the hump or correcting the nasal deviation: Regardless of whether the hump is caused by hereditary factors or due to an injury, rhinoplasty can correct defects on the bridge of the nose.


In addition to cosmetic benefits, rhinoplasty can also correct health-related problems. The two main advantages of this method for correcting the function of the nose are as follows:


Improvement of respiratory problems: rhinoplasty can open narrow nasal passages and correct its structural problems. In this way, this surgery can help improve breathing problems.


Correcting cases of congenital defects: rhinoplasty can correct external problems as well as internal congenital problems of the nose such as deviation of the nasal septum.


When rhinoplasty is used to correct structural problems, insurance providers may cover the cost.




Temporary side effects after surgery


Although long-term side effects are rare in this surgery, rhinoplasty can have some temporary side effects for a person as follows:


Bruising: Bruising usually occurs in the areas around the eyes and disappears after 10 days of surgery.


Discomfort: Patients may experience some discomfort and inflammation, especially in the reshaped areas of the nose or tissue removed for bone grafting. In most cases, sick people can relieve their discomfort by taking available painkillers.


Swelling: Most of the swelling caused after surgery usually disappears after a few weeks. However, it takes six months to a year to fully resolve this condition.


Side effects of anesthesia: Some people may experience nausea after using anesthesia, and this problem can be accompanied by temporary changes in voice and excessive secretion of mucous fluid.


Nosebleeds: Having nosebleeds for 72 hours after surgery is normal. Although the possible bleeding after this period is usually not serious, the patient should inform his surgeon about his nosebleeds if he observes these conditions.




When this surgery is performed by an experienced plastic surgeon, it can be a safe procedure with limited long-term side effects for the patient. However, all surgeries have certain levels of risk and danger. For this reason, it is necessary for the patient to be aware of these risks and to control his recovery process according to the surgeon’s care instructions. If any abnormal symptoms are observed in the patient’s condition during the recovery period, it is necessary to meet with the attending physician in this regard.


Potential side effects


The risks of rhinoplasty, despite being rare, are as follows:


. infection

. Allergic reaction to anesthetics

. Adverse cosmetic results include nasal asymmetry

. Remaining undesirable scars after surgery


. Respiratory problems

. Chronic nosebleeds

. Nasal septum perforation

Hematoma (accumulation of blood under the skin)

. Cut off blood vessels

. The possibility of having corrective surgery


Cost and price


Because rhinoplasty is different for each patient, the cost of rhinoplasty is not the same and depends on many factors. In this way, patients should discuss the total cost of surgery with their doctor and learn about payment methods and possible financing plans that can be used.




The nasal gel injection method is especially suitable for patients who are looking for reconstructive nose surgery and non-surgical nose surgery (re-rhinal surgery). Performing nose surgery weakens the internal structures of the nose and by performing repeated surgeries, your nose becomes highly susceptible to injury. On the other hand, correcting deformities and minor disorders with surgery can be very challenging and difficult. In this case, it is much more appropriate to use injectable gels to shape the nose, and with this method, the related abnormality can be removed without damaging the sensitive structures of the nose.


Frequently asked questions

1- How much time does nose surgery require?

Nose surgery usually takes one to two hours, although this time may be longer depending on the surgeon’s goals. Also, secondary rhinoplasty surgery takes about four hours. Again, the duration of this surgery also depends on the treatment needs of the patient and the specific techniques used by the doctor.


2- Is old age an obstacle for nose surgery?


There is no age limit for rhinoplasty surgery. However, in order to avoid the risk of infection and the complications of unconsciousness, you must be in good physical health. In addition, to achieve optimal beauty results, the elasticity of the skin must be at an appropriate level.

Some doctors advise their elderly patients to use anesthetic injection and semi-conscious state instead of general anesthesia for surgery.

3- Can a doctor fix a broken nose even in cases where the damage was caused in the last few years?


Yes. Although in the best case, it is necessary to treat as soon as possible after the injury, the doctor can usually correct the injury by re-breaking the patient’s nasal bone and correcting its position.

4-Is this surgery safe for teenagers?


Doctors usually suggest that girls wait until they reach the age of 14 or 15 to perform this surgery, and boys need to wait a few more years for rhinoplasty. At the time of surgery, the growth process of the nose must have stopped.


Is there a permanent scar on the nose after surgery?


Similar to most types of plastic surgery, there is a possibility of scarring on the face after rhinoplasty. In closed rhinoplasty, all the slits are created inside the nasal cavity, and therefore, no visible scar is left on the face. In open rhinoplasty surgery, an additional slit is created in the lower part of the nasal septum, which can leave some scars after the treatment. Fortunately, due to the size and location of the incision, this scar is usually not visible to others.

6- Does rhinoplasty cause a lot of pain for the patient?

Patients may experience some discomfort during the first few days after surgery, but it is possible to control this pain and discomfort easily with pain medication.

7- How much time off is needed after nose surgery?


Patients can usually return to work one to two weeks after rhinoplasty.

When will the stitches be removed after rhinoplasty?


The stitches are usually removed six or seven days after surgery.













kidney stone

kidney stone

kidney stone

kidney stone

Everything you need to know about kidney stones and their symptoms and treatment

Who is the best kidney stone surgeon in Iran?
Kidney stones are small, hard mineral deposits that form inside the kidneys. These stones are made of mineral and acid salts. Kidney stones have a variety of causes and affect all parts of your digestive system, from the kidneys to the bladder. Most stones are formed when the urine is concentrated, at which time the minerals have the opportunity to crystallize and bond together.


Passing stones can be very painful, but the damage is usually not permanent. Depending on the location and condition of the stone, you may not need to do much to remove your stone. Sometimes it is enough to drink a lot of fluids and painkillers to finally expel the stone. In some other situations, surgery may be required due to stone deposition and complications in the urinary system.


If you are at risk of developing kidney stones again, your doctor may give you recommendations to prevent them from forming again.


kidney stone

Types of kidney stones

Kidney stones are not formed from the same type of crystals. Different types of kidney stones include the following:



Calcium stones are the most common type of kidney stone. They are often composed of calcium oxalate (although they can also be composed of calcium phosphate or malatite). Reducing the consumption of foods rich in oxalate will reduce the risk of developing this type of stone. Foods high in oxalates include:


potato chips






Although some kidney stones are composed of calcium, getting enough calcium from the diet can prevent the formation of kidney stones.

Uric acid


The formation of this type of kidney stone is more common in men than in women. These types of stones are formed in people with gout or people undergoing chemotherapy.


This type of stone is formed when the level of urine acid is very high. A diet rich in purines increases the level of acid in the urine. Purine is a colorless substance found in animal proteins such as fish, shellfish, and meat.



The formation of these types of stones is often seen in women with urinary tract infections. These stones can be large and cause urinary obstruction. They are formed as a result of kidney infection. Treating the underlying infection can prevent the formation of striatal stones.




Cysteine stones are rare. They are formed in men and women with cystinuria genetic disorder. This type of stone, along with the acid that is naturally formed in the body, is transferred from the kidneys to the urine.


Effective factors in increasing the risk of kidney stone formation


Low amount of urine during the day is the biggest risk factor for the formation of kidney stones. For this reason, the formation of kidney stones in premature babies with kidney problems is common. However, kidney stones are more likely to form in people between the ages of 20 and 50.

Don’t miss this article: 9 ways to prevent the formation of kidney stones


Various factors play a role in increasing the risk of kidney stones. White people are more likely to develop kidney stones than black people.


Gender also plays a role in this. A higher percentage of men develop kidney stones than women.


A family history of kidney stones can also increase your risk.


Other effective factors in increasing the risk of kidney stone formation are:




A diet with a high level of protein, salt or glucose

Hyperparathyroid disease

Gastric bypass surgery

Inflammatory bowel diseases that increase calcium absorption

Taking drugs such as the diuretic Triamerene, anticonvulsant drugs and calcium-based antacids




Kidney stones often cause severe pain. Kidney stone symptoms may not appear until the stone begins to move through the urethra. This severe pain is called renal colic. In such a situation, you may feel pain on one side of your back or abdomen.


In men, this pain may spread to the groin area. Renal colic pain is often intermittent but can be very severe. People with renal colic are restless.


kidney stone
A kidney stone may not be noticed until it moves in the kidney or when it is excreted from the ureter (connecting duct between the kidney and the bladder). The signs and symptoms that you may experience when the stone is moving include:


Severe pain in the same side and back, under the ribs

Pain radiating to the lower abdomen and groin

Pain during urination

Pink, red or brown urine

.nausea and vomiting

Constant need to urinate

Urinating more than usual

Fever and chills (in case of infection)

Decreased amount of urine


If the kidney stone is small, it may not have pain or symptoms because the small stone is able to pass through your urinary tract.


The pain caused by kidney stones may change. For example, the location of the pain, the intensity of the pain may change as the stone moves.


Urinary-genital system stones


When to see a doctor?


See your doctor immediately if you experience any of the following symptoms:


.The pain is so intense that you cannot sit

Pain with nausea and vomiting

Pain with fever and chills

The presence of blood in the urine

Difficulty urinating




Kidney stones often have no definite cause, but a set of factors increase the incidence of kidney stones.


Stones are formed in the kidney when the amount of crystalline materials in the kidney such as calcium, oxalate and uric acid exceeds the amount of liquid materials.


Knowing the type of kidney stones makes it possible to prevent the formation of kidney stones by observing certain conditions. The types of kidney stones include:


Calcium stones

Asteroid stones

Uric acid stones

Cysteine stones

Other stones


Why can kidney stones be a problem?


Stones do not always remain in the kidney. Sometimes they move from the kidney to the urethra. The urethra is small and delicate, and these stones may be too large to move smoothly from the urethra to the bladder.

Don’t miss this article: The best diet for kidney stone sufferers


Stone passing through the urethra can lead to spasm and burning of the ureter and eventually blood in the urine.


Sometimes stones block the flow of urine. This condition is called urinary obstruction, which may lead to kidney infection and kidney damage.



kidney stone

risk factors


Things that increase the risk of forming stones in your kidney include:


Personal or family history. If someone in your family has kidney stones, you are more likely to develop kidney stones than the average person. And if you already have one or more kidney stones, you are at risk for other stones.


Dehydration. Drinking water daily can reduce the risk of kidney stones. People who live in hot climates and those who sweat a lot may be at higher risk than others.


Special diets. Eating a diet high in protein, sodium, and sugar may increase your risk of developing some types of kidney stones. This is especially true with a high sodium diet. Too much sodium in your diet increases the amount of calcium that must be filtered by the kidneys and significantly increases the risk of developing kidney stones.


Obesity. A high body mass index (BMI), large waist size, and weight gain are associated with an increased risk of developing kidney stones.


Gastrointestinal diseases and surgeries. Gastric bypass surgery, inflammatory bowel disease or chronic diarrhea can cause changes in the digestive process to absorb calcium and water and increase the risk of kidney stones.


Other medical conditions. Diseases and conditions that may increase the risk of developing kidney stones include: renal acidosis, cystinuria, hyperparathyroidism, some medications, and some urinary tract infections.


Preparing to see a doctor


Small kidney stones that do not block or cause other problems can be treated by a family doctor. But if your kidney stone is big or you suffer many complications, your doctor may refer you to a urologist (kidney and urinary tract specialist).


Here are some sample questions to ask your doctor:


Do I have kidney stones?

How big is my kidney stone?

Where is the kidney stone located?


What is my kidney stone?

Do I need medical treatment to get rid of stones?

Do I need surgery or another method to remove stones?

How likely is it that my other kidney will also form stones?

How can I prevent the formation of kidney stones in the future?

Do I need to follow up for this stone?


If you have any other questions, be sure to ask your doctor

What should you expect from your doctor?


Questions that the doctor may ask you:


How did your symptoms start?

Was your symptom continuous or occasional?

How do your symptoms worsen?

What things improve your symptoms?

Does anyone else in your family have kidney stones?


Tests and diagnosis


If your doctor suspects kidney stones, he may order the following tests:

Don’t miss this article: 9 ways to prevent the formation of kidney stones


blood test. Blood tests may show too much calcium or high uric acid in your blood. Blood test results may be based on other aspects of your health.


Urinalysis. A 24-hour urine collection may show excessive excretion of minerals from your urine.


Imaging methods. Imaging methods such as X-ray and for smaller stones CT scan are very useful. Sometimes ultrasound is the first imaging step in kidney stones due to its uncomplicated nature.


Urinary stone analysis. By using a strainer while urinating, you can hold your stone and give it to the laboratory for stone analysis. This can help you decide what steps to take to prevent stones.




Kidney stone treatment varies depending on the type of stone and its cause.




Small stones


These stones often do not require aggressive measures. You will be able to remove these stones by:


Drinking water. Drinking 2 to 3 liters of water daily can wash your kidneys well and prevent the formation of new stones.


Painkillers. Passing kidney stones is usually painful, and the doctor will give you painkillers such as (acetaminophen, ibuprofen, etc.) to reduce this pain.


Other treatments. Your doctor may use drugs such as alpha blockers. These drugs relax the muscles of the ureter and facilitate the passage of stones.

Big stones


If your stone is large and cannot be removed with the above, the doctor may use the following at his discretion:


Sound waves to break rocks




Closed surgery, also known as PCNL.


It is a method to remove kidney stones. In this method, a camera is inserted into the kidney by making a small hole in the side, and after crushing the stones, we remove them.




TUL method


In cases of ureteral stones, the TUL method, in which by inserting a camera through the urinary tract, crushes it until it comes out.

If a person has an overactive parathyroid gland, which causes the formation of calcium stones, the surgery of this gland will be necessary.




Advantages of closed kidney stone surgery compared to open surgery


The importance and special feature of the Riers surgery method compared to other stone crushing and kidney surgery methods is that the patient does not need to remove the large pieces of the stone. Since during this surgery (Reer’s surgery) the stone is placed directly in front of the stone by the ureteroscope and multiple blows are made on the stone with the holmium laser fiber, the surgeon can easily see the stone and with sufficient skill can It is to hit the stone with a laser and crush it and completely pulverize it. These pieces are so small that they will be easily removed without suffering pain and other complications when the patient urinates. In other methods of kidney stone operation, the stones are broken into 4-5 and even bigger than 6 mm chambers, which the patient has to endure a lot of pain and many problems to remove them.


Another advantage of the Riers surgery method is that this type of stone crushing and pulverization (Reers surgery) does not require the discontinuation of anticoagulants. For example, heart patients who take aspirin or Plavix and have to stop taking these drugs for a while for every surgery will not need to stop taking their drugs by doing this surgery (reversal surgery). Many patients over the age of 50 are forced to take permanent and unstoppable drugs such as aspirin, plavix, warfarin… and suffer from stroke and heart attack due to stopping these drugs.


In other methods of stone crushing and open kidney stone surgery and lateral puncture method (PCNL), the patient must stop taking these drugs for a week or more, and there is a risk for the patient to have heart and brain attacks. But in a new, modern and advanced stone crushing method


RIRS surgery, the patient will not need to stop any of these drugs, and the stone will be broken easily without the slightest abnormal bleeding during the surgery, and the patient will not be disabled or have any special problems, and will be discharged on the same day of the operation or the day after the operation. This can be an important advantage and feature for a person, especially in the current conditions of the society and the world (the conditions of the spread of the Covid-19 virus and the possibility of contracting the corona virus), where it is better for patients not to be in close contact with each other. Rear surgery) which is performed in the morning and the patient will be discharged in the evening or night of the same day of surgery with a prescription can be very beneficial for the patient and his family.


Another very important advantage and feature of the Rears surgery method is the absence of body piercing or surgical incision for the patient. In this method, it enters the patient’s kidney system through the urethra and the natural holes of the urethra, and there is no need to pierce or cut the patient’s body, and it easily enters the bladder, ureter, and all the calyces of the kidney through the urethra. It is done as needed. This surgery (reversal surgery) is a highly specialized surgical method that a limited number of endourology subspecialists in the country have the skills and expertise to perform this surgery (reversal surgery) and there are restrictions for performing reversal surgery in the country. There are few skilled endo-urologist surgeons who have the necessary skills to use the flexible ureteroscope device in our country and they are limited to less than ten skilled endo-urologists in this field in the whole country.


The cost of closed kidney stone surgery


An important point in the surgery method is the expensive equipment and thus the high cost of this surgery. The flexible ureteroscope required for rear surgery costs about four hundred million tomans, and maybe after about a hundred surgeries or even less, the ureteroscope’s efficiency may be lost and it can no longer be used. In addition to the ureteroscope, a laser device is needed to crush and pulverize the stone for the ureteral surgery. These laser devices are not domestically produced and are at They have a high visitation fee in the world, and it is necessary to import it into the country, and when they enter the country, they will have a very high visitation fee of about two billion tomans, and this cost cannot be paid for most of the country’s medical centers, even in Tehran. There are few medical centers that have the ability to buy these devices, and with the growth and fluctuations of the currency, the ability to buy these two or three surgical centers will decrease, on the other hand, the repair, service and maintenance of these devices are very expensive and high cost for the medical centers. has it.




To prevent the formation of urinary stones, the following will help:


Drinking water during the day. Drinking 2 to 3 liters of liquids, especially water, can prevent the formation of new stones.


If you live in a hot area or exercise a lot, you may even need more water.


Eat foods with less oxalate. If your kidney tends to form calcium oxalate stones, your doctor may limit foods rich in oxalate. These foods include: rhubarb, beets, okra, spinach, beet leaves, sweet potatoes, nuts, tea, chocolate and Soy products.


Choose a diet low in protein (animal) and low in salt.


In some kidney stones, such as calcium oxalate, consuming more calcium prevents the formation of new stones. But in some other cases, calcium may increase the formation of kidney stones, so be sure to consult your doctor about this.


If you are not allowed to take calcium supplements, ask your doctor about taking calcium supplements.


Frequently asked questions before and after kidney stone surgery:


1- Which method of breaking kidney stones is better?


It depends on the size of the stone, but in general, the least dangerous stone breaking method for kidney stones is the laser method, i.e. RIRS.


2- What is the difference between extra-organ and intra-organ stone crushing in kidney stones?


In extra-organ stone breaking, that is, ESWL, the stone is broken through the skin with ultrasound waves, but in the intra-organ method, we enter the kidney with a camera from inside the duct and use a laser beam to pulverize the stone, the name of this closed surgery method is RIRS.


3- What is the advantage of Rears compared to other kidney stone surgeries?


There is no damage to the kidney tissue in the resurgence method, while in the PCNL and ESWL method, some of the kidney tissue is always destroyed. When the patient undergoes stone crushing several times with non-resurgence methods, the kidney will be destroyed over time.


4- Do we stay hospitalized for kidney stones after rear surgery?


Generally, patients are discharged on the same day of surgery and can take care of their daily activities.


5- What is the purpose of the double J that we put after the rears?


Double J is a delicate stent that is placed inside the ureter so that urine does not accumulate in the kidney and stones are removed from it easily and painlessly. Also, if there is a stricture of the ureter, it expands with Double J.


6- I have pain, burning and bleeding after putting double g, is it normal?


Double G is associated with flank pain in all patients, especially at the end of urinating. Also, burning in urination and blood in the urine are completely normal until the day a person has Double G.


7- What should I do to reduce the pain and burning of double J?


Painkillers such as diclofenac suppositories or ketorolac ampoules can be used. Also, some specialized drugs may be added to the treatment with the opinion of the patient’s surgeon.


8- What will happen if we take out the double J early?


We need to see why the surgeon used the double J. For example, if it was inserted to prevent ureteral stricture, if it is removed early, the ureter will be narrowed.


9- What is the difference between Rears and Tul?

In the RIRS method, the stone is pulverized using a Holmium laser, and it is used for any stone anywhere in the ureter and kidney, because it is done with a flexible camera, but in the TUL method, the stone is crushed with a pneumatic crusher, and if it is above the ureter, it goes inside If the kidney is thrown, it will come out of the surgeon’s crosshairs, and the person will have to perform extra-organ stone crushing again.


10- What diet should we have for less stone formation?


The general diet for stone patients includes less salt and red meat consumption and more fluids


11- Should those who are prone to stone formation eat dairy products?


Yes, stone patients must consume dairy products in their meals to avoid kidney stones.


12- Can you exercise after kidney stone surgery?


If the patient does not have double J, he is completely free to do any kind of exercise, but if the patient has double J, he should not do intense sports until it is removed.


13- How many days after stone operation should I rest and not go to work?


Usually, patients can easily return to the workplace the day after the surgery and can take care of their daily tasks

kidney stone
kidney stone
Open heart coronary surgery

Open heart coronary surgery

Open heart coronary surgery

Open heart coronary surgery

Everything you need to know about coronary open heart surgery (CABGs)!

Who is the best Open heart coronary surgeon in Iran?
Coronary bypass surgery is a useful and effective procedure for the treatment of coronary artery blockage and narrowing of heart vessels. In this operation, the heart surgeon bypasses the narrowing of the heart vessels by using graft vessels that are often separated from the veins of the leg, and as a result of this bypass of the blocked areas of the heart, blood flow is restored in the heart. This operation is performed in cases where a large number of heart vessels are closed or in cases with heart failure.


Every year, a large number of patients undergo open heart surgery for coronary artery bypass surgery to treat coronary artery blockage and its complications. Although this procedure is life-saving, it still has its own tips and risks that people with coronary artery disease should be familiar with.

Open heart coronary surgery

What is open heart surgery?

Today, open heart surgery is performed in two ways. In the routine and classical type of operation, the chest is opened and after cutting the middle of the chest and sternum bone, open heart surgery is performed. In the second method, which is less common but is getting more attention day by day, it is known as the less invasive method. In this method, the chest is not opened and instead, several holes are created in the chest wall and coronary artery grafting is done through them. In both cases, open heart surgery requires an open heart operation room and hospitalization.


In this operation, it is necessary to cut a number of healthy vessels from other parts of the body and transplant them next to the blocked heart vessels to the place after the narrowing of the heart vessel. For this purpose, different vessels can be used:

Black veins in the leg (saphenous vein)


The system of veins, or the black veins of the legs, is a dual system. In this way, both the deep veins and superficial veins known as “saphenous veins” can direct the blood in the legs to the heart through the saphenous veins. For this reason, the superficial veins of the leg can be removed easily and no problems will be caused in the venous blood flow of the leg. This vein, which has a length of 50 to 60 cm, is easily removed, and first the valves of the pigeon’s nest and its branches are separated and divided into several parts according to the length of the transplanted veins.


During coronary artery bypass surgery, one side of these black veins is sewn to the main artery of the body, i.e. the aorta, and the other side is sewn to the coronary arteries of the heart after the stenosis, and in this way, the blocked and narrow coronary area is bypassed. Blood flow is re-established in the post-coronary stenosis area. Usually, 2 to 4 of these grafts are used in each bypass operation.


Venous grafts have a thinner wall than the coronary arteries of the heart and the rest of the arteries, and their diameter is greater than the diameter of the coronary arteries, that’s why the tolerance of these grafts against arterial pressure is low and there is a possibility of their blockage over time. Venous grafts usually last about 5 to 10 years, after which up to 50% of these types of grafts will narrow and become blocked again. After 10 to 15 years, only 15% of these links are open, but considering that the re-blocking of these links happens gradually and over the years, the heart muscles can tolerate the re-blocking better and therefore suffer less. Chest pain.


Venous grafts can be easily treated with stents and angioplasty in case of obstruction and re-stenosis, and require less open heart surgery. Although all the venous connections are blocked and the risk of re-operation of the heart is not high, re-operation can be done. Open heart re-operation is associated with more risks than the first operation and is associated with a lack of veins due to their use in the first operation.

Open heart coronary surgery
Arterial grafts


Due to the limitations of the use of black veins for coronary artery grafting, the use of arteries for cardiac artery grafting has received much attention. The justification for this interest in using arteries is that the walls of arteries are thicker and they can withstand intravascular pressure more than veins. Also, the diameter of the used arteries is almost similar to heart vessels and they create better and more regular blood flow. LIMA artery


In the past years, arteries such as the “radial artery of the hand” and “visceral arteries of the abdomen” have been used for this purpose, but the best results have been seen with the use of the “Internal Mammary Artery”. This artery inside the chest wall on the right and left side of the chest is separated from the “subclavian or subclavian” artery and moves downward and supplies blood to the space between the ribs. This artery has a lifespan of more than 20 years and can provide safe and secure blood supply to the heart for a long time.


Due to the importance of the internal chest artery LIMA, most surgeons prefer to transplant this vein to the most important coronary artery of the heart which is the left descending artery of the heart or “LAD” and use leg vein grafts for other veins.


Artificial veins


Artificial veins are tubes made of “Teflon” or “Nylon” that are produced in different dimensions and diameters and can be used to connect all kinds of veins inside the body. In the past years, the use of these artificial veins in the heart has not had good results, and the speed of blockage and blood clot formation in them has been higher than that of venous and arterial grafts. Therefore, today this type of transplant is not used for heart bypass surgery and their use is limited to people whose natural vessels, whether veins or arteries, cannot be used for heart surgery

Methods of performing open heart surgery


After preparing vascular grafts for heart surgery and sewing them to heart vessels, several methods can be used. The use of these methods depends on the clinical conditions of the patient, the number of blocked vessels and the strength of heart function.


In all these methods, it is necessary for the patient to have complete anesthesia, and anesthesia methods cannot be used to perform heart surgery. Anesthesia during heart surgery is performed by cardiac anesthesiologists who have completed the necessary courses regarding diseases and anesthesia methods for cardiac patients. Therefore, it is necessary to examine and visit patients before open heart surgery by a cardiac anesthesiologist in terms of the presence of other diseases and examination of the patient’s medical background. Identifying anesthesia risk factors can help reduce the risk of open heart surgery and shorten the patient’s hospitalization period.


Classic heart surgery using a heart pump


This method is the most common method of coronary artery bypass surgery. In this method, the patient’s chest is opened from the middle and the sternum bone is cut using special tools so that the patient’s heart is accessible to the surgeon.




In the next step, the heart must be turned off! Considering that the contraction and beating of the heart causes the movement of cavities and vessels on the heart, and this can limit the access to the heart vessels, especially the vessels of the lower and back region of the heart, and the sewing and suturing of the transplanted vessels. It is necessary to face the problem. Therefore, by injecting drugs that have significant amounts of “potassium”, the patient’s heart will temporarily shut down and will not beat. For this reason, it is necessary to replace blood circulation in the body in other ways during the procedure so that enough blood reaches the brain and other body parts. For this purpose, a device called “cardiopulmonary pump” is used.


This device has strong motors that are constantly rotating and by means of large tubes blood is taken from the veins of the body and enters a series of special plates called “oxygenators”. An oxygenator is a device that injects fresh oxygen into dirty venous blood so that it enters the arteries of the body from the other side of the cardiopulmonary pump and delivers enough oxygen to the body. In this way, during open heart surgery, when the heart is shut down, other organs of the body will receive enough blood and oxygen.

Using this pump during heart surgery has positive and negative points.


The positive points of using a pump are that it allows the surgeon to complete the surgery faster and in a shorter period of time. It is also possible to make more vascular grafts in different areas of the heart, especially the vessels of the lower and back of the heart. For this reason, today this method, i.e. the use of a heart and lung pump or so-called “On-Pump”, is considered a routine and standard method during surgery.


Cardiac surgery without the use of a pump


Along with the positive points of using the pump, this device makes patients need more blood transfusions after open heart surgery, because some of the patient’s blood is lost in the pump. Also, a type of inflammatory process occurs in the patient, which causes swelling of the patient’s body and the patient’s longer stay in the open heart ICU.


For this reason, some surgeons prefer to operate on patients who have a simpler surgery and the number of blocked vessels is less, with the heart beating continuously and without the use of a heart pump, or the so-called “Off-Pump” method. Of course, this is not possible in many patients with large and complex operations or patients who need another surgery at the same time, such as heart valve repair or replacement.


Of course, it should be noted that the long-term results of these two methods are similar in terms of patient mortality.

Open heart coronary surgery


Minimally invasive bypass surgery


It is a special type of heart surgery that is performed by thoracoscopic method. The most important stress and concern of patients from open heart surgery is the splitting of the chest and fusion of the sternum bone, which usually lasts two to three months. In this method, the chest is not opened and instead, similar to abdominal laparoscopic surgery, several small holes are created in the chest and through them the surgical instruments are directed to the heart and the surgery is performed in a closed manner.


Procedures for open heart surgery


On average, open heart surgery may take 4 to 6 hours.

– First, the patient is put under anesthesia by an anesthesiologist. Anesthesia makes the patient sleep during the entire operation and does not feel any pain.

– The surgeon makes an 8-10 inch incision in the chest.

-The surgeon cuts all or part of the chest bones to access the heart.

Once the heart is visible, the patient may be connected to a heart-lung bypass machine. The machine diverts blood away from the heart so that the surgeon can perform the operation. Some newer methods do not use this device.

– The surgeon uses a healthy vein or arteries to create a new path around the blocked artery.

– The surgeon closes the chest with wires, and places these wires inside the body.

– The main incision is sutured.

Sometimes, sternal plating is done for people at risk, including the elderly or people who have had multiple surgeries. This is when the breast is reattached with small titanium plates after surgery.

Complications of open heart surgery

Some of the common complications of open heart surgery usually improve in the first hours and days of hospitalization, and the patient is carefully examined for the complications of open heart surgery by the hospital staff and through laboratory tests.


1- Bleeding after open heart surgery

It may occur at the site of a surgical incision or the area of the heart where surgery is performed.

2- Abnormal heart rhythm

In rare cases, a temporary external or permanent internal pacemaker may be needed to correct this problem.


3- Ischemic heart damage

Damage to heart tissue caused by lack of blood flow to the heart




Complications of open heart surgery


4- Death

The risk of death increases in surgery in which the heart is stopped in any procedure.


5- Blood clotting

Blood clots may form in and around the heart or travel through the bloodstream.


6- Stroke

It is often caused by clots that have formed in the blood after surgery.


7- Blood loss

In some cases, a blood transfusion may be necessary.


8- cardiac tamponade (pericardial tamponade)

A life-threatening disease in which the pericardium, the sac around the heart, fills with blood. This state makes the full functioning of the heart difficult or impossible.


Care after open heart surgery


After the open heart surgery, the patient will feel better and it is possible that he will not have any heart problems for 10 to 15 years. But in the long term, other vessels may become blocked and need to be operated again.


Although bypass surgery improves blood supply to the heart, it does not treat underlying coronary artery disease. The effective results of the treatment will last when you observe and control your diabetes. A healthy lifestyle is very effective in sustaining treatment results, including the following:


Quit Smoking.

Following a healthy diet, such as the DASH diet (a food plan recommended to patients by the National Heart, Blood and Lung Association).

Having a balanced weight.

Doing sports exercises regularly.

stress management.

In addition to lifestyle changes, in most cases a cardiac rehabilitation program is recommended by the doctor for the patient. Cardiac rehabilitation is a treatment program that includes special exercises and training. This program is specially designed for each person based on his conditions, to improve his heart function.things such as: regular use of drugs to prevent blood clots and blood pressure, cholesterol A cardiac rehabilitation program is used after heart attacks or other heart surgeries to help improve the patient’s condition. Cardiac rehabilitation often begins while you are still in the hospital. This program will continue under the doctor’s supervision until you can easily follow it after returning home.


Open heart coronary surgery
After surgery and initial weight loss, you will experience more energy, which will make exercise easier. You need to find time in your busy schedule to stay committed and make exercise a regular habit. A healthy diet is also important for maintaining weight loss.

But unfortunately, in general, some of the weight of about 30% of patients returns as a result of lack of exercise and improper diet.
6. Can I eat again like before?

Yes, after the first few months you can eat normal foods (but your portions will be smaller) and your obesity-related medical problems will improve, as will your energy and overall health.
7. Will everyone notice my bariatric surgery?

Most weight loss occurs in the first 6 to 12 months after surgery, so people may notice a change in your appearance, but it’s your choice whether or not to share your decision about bariatric surgery.

Telling your friends, acquaintances, colleagues and others is your decision, but we recommend that you definitely have some supporters in this way; Because bariatric surgery and weight loss are difficult. Having a supportive friend or family member on your weight loss journey can be helpful.
8. Will I have sagging skin after losing weight?

Most patients do not experience skin sagging after bariatric surgery. But some people may want to do cosmetic procedures to treat sagging skin! Several factors that can affect sagging skin; Age, genetics and hydration. Additionally, it is recommended that you begin exercising approximately 6 weeks after surgery to prevent skin sagging and build lean muscle.

Types of treatment methods for sagging skin after severe weight loss:

Cosmetic surgeries such as abdominoplasty and panniculectomy
laser therapy
Use of collagen creams

9. Can I get pregnant after bariatric surgery?

Yes, you can still get pregnant after bariatric surgery, and some patients actually find it easier to get pregnant after losing the weight they gain from bariatric surgery. We recommend that you wait at least 18 to 24 months after surgery before trying to get pregnant. It is important to tell your OB/GYN that you have had bariatric surgery and to stay in touch with your surgeon to ensure a safe pregnancy.

Open heart coronary surgery
Hair transplantation

Hair transplantation

Hair transplantation

Hair transplantation

All about high density natural hair transplants

Who is the best Hair transplantation in Iran?
Hair transplantation is one of the most important and popular beauty practices among the general public. Many people suffer from hair loss due to hereditary reasons or aging, which reduces their self-confidence. Hair transplantation, which is one of the most popular surgeries in the world, is very suitable for this group of people and makes their lost hair return. Hair transplantation means the transfer of hair follicles from dense areas to less dense areas


Hair transplantation is like a miracle for people who have hair loss and it causes hair to grow again. If you also suffer from hair loss and baldness, you can do hair transplantation by referring to dermatologists and hair specialists and experienced people in this field. We know that those who perform hair transplantation due to hereditary reasons and hair loss, often have a desire to perform related beauty procedures such as eyebrow transplantation. Hair transplantation is done with different methods and your doctor will use one of the methods for you according to your age and the factors that are important in this field. Follow this article to learn about hair transplantation and its methods.

Hair transplantation

What is hair transplantation?

Hair transplantation is a type of surgery in which hair roots are transplanted from a part of the body that is resistant to hereditary hair loss to the part where hair is falling. This method is one of the most effective methods of repairing and restoring lost hair, in which natural hair is transplanted to the part that is falling out. 1 to 4 strands of hair can be grown in one hair bulb. Of course, today new methods are used in which the body hair bulb is not changed or manipulated. Hair transplantation can be done for parts of the body such as the head, beard, eyebrows, eyelashes, genital area, chest and parts that have scars. The follicles implanted in the shedding area remain for the rest of the person’s life

In one hair transplant session, which usually lasts one day, 1,500 to 3,000 hair grafts are transplanted. Hair transplant surgery is performed on an outpatient basis and anesthesia is injected in the areas where the hair is to be transplanted, and the patient does not feel any pain during the operation, only he may feel a little pain after the operation, which is normal. Is. After the operation, there is no need to rest and the person can do his work the day after the operation. Usually between three and five months after the operation, the transplanted hair grows. The success rate of hair transplantation is 98%, which of course depends on the skill of the surgeon.


Investigating the causes of hair loss before hair transplantation


Before proceeding with hair transplant surgery, the causes of hair loss should be investigated so that a correct decision can be made whether or not to perform the surgery. As you know, several causes contribute to its loss and low back. Factors such as heredity, mental stress, improper nutrition are some of the factors involved in hair loss.


The final opinion about the eligibility of people to perform this surgery is made by a specialist surgeon. If the use of certain drugs causes hair loss, a person cannot perform hair transplant. A person who is going to undergo hair transplant surgery must have a specific pattern of baldness.

Hair transplantation
Age of applicants for hair transplant surgery

In hair transplantation, the age of the applicants is very important. It is better that this operation is not performed for people under 25 years old and this operation is performed at older ages. In fact, these people are not suitable for hair transplantation.

Of course, people who are old may also experience hair loss after hair transplantation. Therefore, the forms that are considered for hair transplantation should be suitable to cover this issue.


Types of hair transplant methods

Hair transplantation can be done in different ways as mentioned below.

FUT method: This method is the oldest method in hair transplant surgery. In this method, the patient is anesthetized and a part of the back of the head that had hair is transplanted to the bald part of the front of the head, which is obsolete today due to complications such as pain and bleeding.

FIT method: In this method of hair transplantation, strands of hair from the back of the head are transplanted to the bald part in the front of the head. But this method is not used nowadays due to bleeding, post-operative recovery period, the need to repeat sessions, etc.

BHT method: This method is similar to the FIT method, with the difference that for transplanting hair from other parts of the body, hair can be transplanted to the part with hair loss. But this method is obsolete today because of the complications it had like the FIT method.

SUT method: This method is one of the newest and best methods of hair transplantation, which has the least complications and is performed in most hair transplant clinics. This procedure is performed without bleeding and anesthesia, and hairs are removed for transplantation with an automatic device. With this method, 14,000 hair strands can be implanted in the area affected by hair loss.

Micro fit method: Micro fit is one of the modern methods of hair transplantation, in which hair grafts are removed from the hair bank of people using automatic micro motors. In the stage of hair transplant, an implanter device is used, and this means that no cutting or surgery is needed in this method. This method has more density than other hair transplant methods and people can have full back and long hair. Therefore, this method can be more suitable for women. By using the most modern devices, Sa’i specialized clinic performs microfit hair transplantation at the lowest cost for people.

Super combined method: If the doctor feels that the bald areas on the patient’s head are significantly large and other methods of hair transplantation cannot be used, he chooses the super combined method for implantation. In the super combined method, unlike the combined method, hair grafts can be removed from different areas of the body. Areas such as the chest and under the beard are among the areas that the doctor uses as hair bank areas. In this method, the doctor first removes a strip from the hair bank using the FUT method and then uses the SUT method. It is also possible to harvest up to 5000 hair grafts in the super hybrid hair transplant. The important point of this method is that this method takes advantage of both methods and finally gives the best result to the patient.

Super Fue method: Hair transplant with Super Fue method is one of the latest hair transplant methods based on the FIT method. This method is very similar to the FIT method, but the disadvantages of that method have been eliminated in the Super Fue method. Super Fue is one of the low-risk, low-invasive, and low-complication methods, and for this reason, it has been welcomed by many people today. In this method, hair grafts are removed using a small surgical blade. As a result, deep incisions and stitches are not necessary, and as a result, the patient will not experience pain or bleeding. Fast recovery period, use of computer scanning to find resistant follicles, reduction of surgical time and reduction of surgical error are among the great advantages of this method.

DHI method: Direct hair transplantation, known as DHI hair transplantation, is very similar to the FUE method. In the DHI method, the stage of extraction and implantation of hair follicles is performed simultaneously and is considered as part of one process. As a result, the doctor transfers the harvested follicles directly to the bald area. . Lifelong results, no need for a surgical blade and the ability to perform the operation in one session have made many people welcome it. If this method is performed in reputable clinics and under the supervision of a specialist doctor, it will have extraordinary results and its side effects will be very few. Sa’i Specialized Clinic is the best option for DHI hair transplant.

Which hair transplant method gives the most density?


There are different methods of hair transplantation that are used today. The micro fit method gives more density than other hair transplant methods, and this has made this method more popular than other methods. In the microfit method, hair follicles are removed from the donor area using special needles. In this method, a small device is also used to remove hair follicles, open small holes and implant hair, and it is possible to remove and implant hair simultaneously in this method.


In the microfit method, the harvested follicles are directly implanted in the desired area, while in other hair transplant methods, the follicles are kept in special solutions and after some time they are transferred to the new area. In the microfit method, there is no bleeding or pain, and a lot of density is given to people’s hair, and as a result, patients will notice the good growth of their hair after some time and will be completely satisfied with the hair transplant procedure.


In the FUE method, about 60 transplants are performed per centimeter of the head area, but in the microfit method, this number reaches 90 transplants, and as a result, people will have fuller hair after the operation. In the microfit method, there is no need for correction and only the donor area is cut. In general, the microfit method has many advantages and the complications that may occur in other hair transplant methods for people will not exist in this method.


Patients who need a frontline transplant or people who are looking for a beard and mustache transplant can be a good option for choosing the microfit method. Also, women who are looking for more density of their hair can use this method for hair transplantation and get the best results..

Getting to know the stages of hair transplantation


Hair transplant is one of the beauty procedures that people who suffer from hair loss and do it in their own beauty do it. It is better for a person who intends to have a hair transplant to be familiar with the procedures of hair transplant so that he can get a good result from this procedure.


The first step of hair transplantation is choosing a reputable clinic to perform hair transplantation. There have been many people who have had problems after implantation due to choosing unreliable clinics. With the license from the Ministry of Health and the use of a complete treatment team and using the best devices, Sa’i Specialized Clinic can be the best option for hair transplantation.


The second stage of hair transplantation is consultation. You attend a meeting at the clinic and the doctor examines you and chooses the type of operation depending on your conditions and informs you of the important points before and after the operation.


The third stage of hair transplantation is pre-operative care. Precautions such as not smoking, stopping the use of anti-inflammatory and blood clotting drugs, and not drinking alcohol are among the most important things you should do.


In the fourth step, hair transplant is done for you. At this stage, the desired area is numbed and then hair follicles are taken from the hair bank area and added to the desired area. In the last step, the doctor will tell you the points that you should follow after the operation. Points such as taking care of injury to the hair transplant area and not doing heavy sports activities are among the most important points of this stage.

Important points before hair transplant surgery


In hair transplant surgery, like other surgeries, you must follow some tips before the operation to get the best result from hair transplant. These points are given below.


Avoid taking vitamins E, supplements and aspirin two weeks before the operation because they cause blood thinning.

Avoid drinking alcohol two weeks before the operation and try to drink less tea.

Two weeks before the operation, avoid taking slimming diets that cause late recovery after the operation. You can resume your diet two weeks after the operation.

Do not do heavy sports for a week before the operation.

Quit smoking a week before the operation.

A few days before the operation, try to sleep comfortably at night without stress.

Avoid taking ibuprofen and naproxen one day before surgery.

The night before the operation, eat a meal that has enough protein, carbohydrates and sugar. For this purpose, you can use fried or baked potatoes and eat ice cream after dinner.

On the day of the operation, wear clothes that come off easily.

Hair transplantation

Complications after hair transplantation


Some people may not have any complications after the operation, and others may experience the following complications after hair transplantation.


Swelling after surgery: It is one of the most common side effects after hair transplantation. This complication disappears after a short time.

Inflammation of the hair follicle: this complication, which occurs in 29% of patients after the operation, appears as a wound or pimple in the hair transplant area.

Itching: Due to the cracks that are created in the transplanted parts of the hair, the person may feel itchy in that part. If there is an itch, you should not steam that part because it will cause sores. Try to wash your hair daily with a special shampoo.

Numbness: This numbness is normal and will improve a few weeks after the operation.

Hiccups: A small percentage of people experience hiccups after the operation, which are cured by taking steroid drugs.

Cyst: These cysts are usually purple in color and disappear 2-3 weeks after the operation.


Of course, be careful that these side effects are completely normal and will improve after some time.

The cost of hair transplantation, the level of skill of the surgeon


The cost of hair transplant surgery is very important. For hair transplant surgery, it may require a surgical team consisting of several nurses, surgeons and technicians. Also, the materials that must be used for this matter are included in the cost. Therefore, if you want to use more facilities to achieve better results, you need to spend more money. Sometimes there are advertisements about low costs and the use of the best method for hair transplantation, which will be contrary to reality.


The ability and skill of the surgeon is one of the other important points in relation to hair transplantation. Because skilled and experienced surgeons act in such a way that the person applying for hair transplant surgery has better and more comfortable conditions during the operation. Also, everything that should be observed before and after surgery is reminded by the surgeon. An experienced surgeon can increase the success rate of the operation as much as possible. Therefore, it is recommended that you ask about the history of your chosen surgeon before undergoing hair transplant surgery.


The best solution for treating baldness and hair loss is hair transplantation. Because in addition to causing few side effects for the person, it is completely natural and the person can use it to restore beauty to their face. But the question that is always in people’s minds is, what is the best and latest method of hair transplant in the new year?




Hair transplantation has various methods, one of the best and newest of which is the microfit method. This method, which is recently performed in reputable clinics, is more suitable than other hair transplant methods, and people do not pay much for it. In this method, hair grafts are placed in the bald area using an implanter device without manual intervention. This method always has many fans due to its naturalness.


Hair transplantation with the new microfit method has recently been welcomed by doctors and is widely performed in reputable clinics. Microfit is a technique that is not similar to hair transplant methods. In this method, after removing the hair follicles from the donor area, they are transferred to the new area using a micro motor. The microfit method is more suitable for women who like to always have long hair or prefer thick hair.


Washing the head after hair transplantation


Hair transplant is one of the procedures that will not bring good results to the patient if the post-operative care and doctor’s recommendations are not done well. One of the most important actions is how to wash your hair after hair transplantation, which should be done in a principled manner so that the newly transplanted hair follicles are not damaged.


It is better to pay attention to different points while washing your hair for at least one month, and after one month you can wash your hair as before. One of the important points when washing hair after hair transplant is to use shampoo. It is better to use baby shampoo after planting. Because baby shampoo does not contain harmful chemicals for implanted hair. While washing your hair, pay attention that you should not hit the desired area or hit the desired area with your nails.


Do not use a hair dryer to dry your hair after showering. The heat of the hair dryer will damage the newly implanted follicles and you will not be able to get the desired result from the hair transplant. It is also better not to use a towel to dry your hair and let your hair dry in the open air. Of course, it is not a problem to use a soft paper towel to dry the head without damaging the desired area

Hair transplantation
Hair transplantation