All about kidney failure
Kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped organs located in the lower back. In fact, it can be said that the kidneys are located on both sides of the spine. The function of the kidneys is to filter the blood from body toxins and expel them to the bladder, and the bladder expels these toxins through urine. Kidney failure occurs when the kidneys cannot remove waste products and toxins from the body through the blood. There are many factors that affect kidney function disorders, including the following:
Exposure to environmental toxins and pollutants or taking certain medications
Suffering from certain types of chronic diseases
Damage to the kidneys
Note that if there is a disturbance in the functioning of the kidneys as a result of the above, body toxins cannot be excreted through urine, and this can cause kidney failure, which is a dangerous disease
Kidney failure can occur as a result of secondary diseases, so it can be said that some people are more susceptible to kidney failure. Stay with us to introduce these diseases to you:
Sudden decrease in blood flow in the kidneys due to heart attacks and diseases, liver failure, lack of body water, severe infections or allergies in the body, high blood pressure, and the use of anti-inflammatory drugs.
Urinary problems due to prostate disease, colon cancer, bladder cancer, kidney stones, blood clots in the urinary tract with neurological problems.
Exposure to heavy metals and poisoning
Use of drugs and alcoholic beverages
Suffering from autoimmune diseases such as lupus
Cancer of plasma cells and bone marrow
Taking chemotherapy drugs
Use of required colors in imaging tests
Having uncontrolled diabetes
There are 5 different types of kidney failure, which will be briefly introduced below:
Acute perenal acute kidney failure
This type of kidney failure occurs due to insufficient blood flow to the kidneys and can be treated when the doctor can diagnose this disease in time.
Acute intrinsic kidney failure
This failure occurs as a result of a direct blow to the kidneys, which can be the result of an accident.
chronic perennial kidney failure
This type of failure occurs due to not enough blood reaching the kidneys and as a result the kidneys shrink.
Chronic inyrinsic insufficiency
If a person has problems due to genetic kidney diseases and struggles with this problem for a long time, he will suffer from chronic innate kidney failure.
Chronic post-renal failure
This failure is caused by the long-term obstruction of the urinary tract and as a result of pressure and damage to the kidneys.
Tests to diagnose kidney failure
The doctor can use this sampling to determine any abnormalities in protein excretion.
. Measurement of urine volume:
Low urine output in this test indicates urinary tract obstruction and kidney diseases.
. Blood sampling:
Blood tests can be used to measure urea and creatine, and an increase in these substances can indicate kidney failure.
Using ultrasound, MRI and CT scan images of the kidney and the urinary system can show obstruction or abnormality in the kidneys.
. Tissue sampling:
Sampling of kidney tissue shows abnormal sediments, scars or wounds in the kidneys Local anesthesia is used during sampling.
Stages of kidney failure
Kidney failure is classified into 5 stages, which will vary from very mild cases to complete failure. As the stages progress, symptoms and complications increase.
– first stage
This stage is very mild and there may be no visible symptoms or complications. Therefore, this stage can be treated by changing the diet and regular exercise and not using tobacco.
– second stage
This stage is still considered mild, but there are symptoms such as protein in the urine or physical damage to the kidneys. Also, if a person is suffering from heart disease and blood disorders, he may see more progress at this stage.
– third level
This stage of kidney failure is moderate, which is determined by blood tests and measurement of waste products. Also, at this stage, the hands and feet are swollen and the frequency of urination is observed.
– The fourth stage
This is the stage of moderate to severe kidney disease where the kidneys do not work well and symptoms such as anemia, high blood pressure and bone diseases are observed.
– The fifth stage
This stage is the most serious stage when the kidneys practically fail and it has symptoms such as vomiting, nausea, skin complications and breathing problems.
Methods of treating kidney failure
Depending on the stage of your kidney failure, the treatment methods are different. But in general, the following methods can be mentioned:
By using a dialysis machine, the blood is filtered and cleared, and in fact, the machine performs the function of the kidneys. It is recommended that people have a low-salt and low-potassium diet in addition to using dialysis.
– Kidney transplant
In this case, a transplanted kidney that is compatible with the patient’s body is used, and for this, the patient must use immunosuppressive drugs to adapt his body to the new kidney. Note that using this method is not suitable for all people.
– Special diet
Some recommendations in the diet are to limit sodium and potassium. Also, protein intake should be done according to the doctor’s advice.
Life expectancy in people with kidney failure
Depending on the stage of kidney failure, the life expectancy is different. On average, people undergoing dialysis are expected to live 5 to 10 years. In addition to the stage of the disease, the age of the patient is also an important factor. The younger people are, the longer their life expectancy. In kidney transplant, you can expect about 5 to 10 years for the patient to spend in perfect health.
Prevention of kidney failure
In general, it can be said that in order to reduce the risk of kidney failure, it is possible to avoid taking drugs with high doses, even in a short period of time, such as aspirin. In addition, it is recommended that people have a healthy diet and side diseases such as blood pressure and diabetes should always be under control so that they can prevent kidney failure.